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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

the revolution, I would add only one suggestion: more attention to agriculture. New industries, supported by petrodollars, drew people to the cities. Food became in short supply and prices rose. To avoid unrest the government imported food and imposed price controls. At the same time inflation cut the real income of the peasant farmer. Without incentives, the farmers produced less and dependence on imports increased. Rice, a staple food in Iran, was imported, as were apples, oranges, mutton, and white cheese, although Iran produces all these products. Efforts to

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

December 1985 issue, “Food security and poverty in LDCs,” was of much interest to me. My undergraduate research indicated that Nigeria’s small peasant farmers (who dominate the Nigerian agricultural sector) produced little above subsistence needs for their households. Poverty is a limiting factor; by their orientation and ability it is nearly impossible for peasant farmers to increase food production beyond certain levels. Over the past two years Nigeria has experienced a noticeable increase in aggregate agricultural production, but this is a result of increased farm

Thomas A. Blinkhorn

there may appear puny indeed against the thick agenda of unfinished business in the developing world. But the Lilongwe experience already suggests that a carefully integrated approach to agricultural development does work, that peasant farmers will respond to incentives, that the crucial transition from subsistence to cash farming can be encouraged and accelerated. This is extremely important for the small farmers of Lilongwe and for the continued development of a poor nation like Malawi. It is also important for other developing countries—in Africa and elsewhere

. Materials for the integrated modular survey have been prepared and validated by INSAE, and a finalization pilot survey will be conducted by February 2005. A QUIBB survey scheduled for 2003 -2004: Besides the QUIBB survey conducted in 2003 it was not possible to carry out another between 2003 and 2004. Impact assessment study of reforms in the agricultural sectors particularly, the cotton sub sector on trends in peasant farmers’ income. In view of the implementation of a pilot phase of the OCS improvement program that was being finalized by DANIDA, Swiss

Sheetal K. Chand and Mr. Parthasarathi Shome
Poverty alleviation is typically addressed in financial programming through additive programs that target vulnerable groups but without modifying the underlying stabilization and adjustment targets. Instead, this paper integrates the poverty alleviation objective into the financial programming framework using a well-known poverty index. In consequence, the assessment of trade-offs between competing objectives is facilitated. A simulation demonstrates how the integrated approach can reduce adverse effects on poverty and improve the balance of payments, although at the cost, temporarily, of a higher fiscal deficit and inflation.
Mrs. Claire Liuksila
This paper assesses the impact on the poor of the macroeconomic adjustment program undertaken in 1985-86. It finds that program-induced changes in production, employment, and real incomes have benefited the poor, while the adverse impact of program-induced price changes was modest and was largely cushioned by government policies. The paper describes the dimensions of poverty in Colombia, surveys government programs to alleviate poverty, and reviews the factors contributing to the improvement in the income distribution in recent years.