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International Monetary Fund

percent of total general government expenditures, the wage bill is not out of line with EU accession countries (an average of 9¾ percent of GDP and 23¾ percent of spending). However, civil servants in Ukraine are very poorly paid, receiving only 25 percent of what the private sector is thought to receive (including unreported income). 36 The authorities do plan a pay reform: they would reorient away from the 70-80 percent of pay which is now based on non-transparent and horizontally inequitable bonuses and allowances towards a system 90 percent comprised of basic pay