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Mr. Rodolfo Maino and Drilona Emrullahu
Fragile states in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face challenges to respond to the effects of climate shocks and rising temperatures. Fragility is linked to structural weaknesses, government failure, and lack of institutional basic functions. Against this setup, climate change could add to risks. A panel fixed effects model (1980 to 2019) found that the effect of a 1◦C rise in temperature decreases income per capita growth in fragile states in SSA by 1.8 percentage points. Panel quantile regression models that account for unobserved individual heterogeneity and distributional heterogeneity, corroborate that the effects of higher temperature on income per capita growth are negative while the impact of income per capita growth on carbon emissions growth is heterogeneous, indicating that higher income per capita growth could help reduce carbon emissions growth for high-emitter countries. These findings tend to support the hypothesis behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the energy consumption growth literature, which postulates that as income increases, emissions increase pari passu until a threshold level of income where emissions start to decline.
Mr. Serhan Cevik and Keitaro Ninomiya
European power markets are in the midst of unprecedented changes, with a record-breaking surge in energy prices.This paper investigates the impact of green power resources on the level and volatility of wholesale electricity prices at a granular level, using monthly observations for a panel of 24 European countries over the period 2014–2021 and alternative estimation methods including a panel quantile regression approach. We find that renewable energy is associated with a significant reduction in wholesale electricity prices in Europe, with an average impact of 0.6 percent for each 1 percentage points increase in renewable share. We also find evidence for a nonlinear effect—that is, higher the share of renewables, the greater its effect on electricity prices. On the other hand, while quantile estimation results are mixed with regards to the impact of renewables on the volatility of electricity prices, we obtain evidence that renewable energy has a negative effect on volatility at the highest quantiles. Overall, our analysis indicates that policy reforms can help accelerate the green transition while minimizing the volatility in electricity prices.
Mr. Tobias Adrian, Federico Grinberg, Nellie Liang, and Sheheryar Malik
Using panel quantile regressions for 11 advanced and 10 emerging market economies, we show that the conditional distribution of GDP growth depends on financial conditions, with growth-at-risk (GaR)—defined as growth at the lower 5th percentile—more responsive than the median or upper percentiles. In addition, the term structure of GaR features an intertemporal tradeoff: GaR is higher in the short run; but lower in the medium run when initial financial conditions are loose relative to typical levels, and the tradeoff is amplified by a credit boom. This shift in the growth distribution generally is not incorporated when solving dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models with macrofinancial linkages, which suggests downside risks to GDP growth are systematically underestimated.
Mr. Serhan Cevik and Sadhna Naik
This paper investigates how housing prices respond to economic, financial and demographic conditions in emerging markets in Europe. We use quarterly data covering 10 countries over the period 1998–2022 and implement a panel quantile regression approach to obtain a granular analysis of real estate markets. Overall, economic, financial and demographic factors explain the changes in real house prices in emerging Europe, with income growth having the most significant impact. Quantile regression estimations show that income growth matters more for higher housing prices than those at the lower quantiles of the property market. We also find that an increase in short-term or long-term interest rates have a price-dampening impact, indicating that a higher cost of borrowing is associated with lower real house prices. These results indicate that the downturn in house prices could deepen with the looming economic recession and soaring interest rates.
Mr. Tobias Adrian, Federico Grinberg, Nellie Liang, and Sheheryar Malik

I. Introduction Financial conditions affect the expected growth distribution; but macroeconomic models and forecasting practices predominantly focus on expected mean growth, and usually do not model volatility or other higher moments of the distribution. This focus on conditional growth for estimations can be too narrow when volatility and skewness increase as growth weakens, and may lead to systematic underestimation of downside tail risks. In this paper, we estimate the distribution of expected GDP growth for 21 countries using panel quantile regression

Mr. Serhan Cevik and Sadhna Naik

Europe Source: BIS; Haver Analytics; and authors’ calculations. This study contributes to the literature by providing a granular investigation of house price developments in ten developing countries in Europe . Using a panel of quarterly observations in 10 emerging European markets during the period 1998–2022, we empirically delve deeply into the economic, financial and demographic determinants of housing prices and draw policy implications. To provide a granular analysis, we use a panel quantile regression approach and estimate the impact of explanatory