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Rasmané Ouedraogo and Nicolas Syrichas
The COVID-19 crisis has a severe impact on education and employment and exposed the many social inequities that make some populations more vulnerable to shocks. Despite a vast literature on social mobility in advanced economies, little is known about it in African countries, mainly due to data limitations. Using a large harmonized dataset of more than 72 million individuals, we fill this gap and examine socioeconomic status mobility across generations, measured by educational and occupational attainment. We uncover the substantial geographical variations in the degree of upward/downward educational and occupational mobility across and within African countries, and the gender and rural/urban divide. Additionally, we explore the determinants of social mobility in the African region. We find that social mobility on the continent could be partly explained by observable individual characteristics (gender, marital status, age, etc.), and that educational mobility is a driver of occupational mobility. Lastly, we show that the quality of institutions, the level of public spending on education, social protection coverage, natural resource endowments, and countries' fragility are strong predictors of social mobility in Africa.
Rasmané Ouedraogo and Nicolas Syrichas

measure from survey data and is comparable across countries and generations. Building on the literature, we exploit time variation in education attainment to measure absolute intergenerational mobility in education since 1920. We contrast our measures across birth-cohorts, countries and regions but also within sub-populations and demographic groups. In addition to the education mobility indices, we also constructed novel occupational mobility indices. This paper is the first to study occupational attainment across generations in Africa. Occupational mobility represents

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

to integrate into the expanding sectors that demand mostly high skills. The situation could be aggravated by the fact that acquiring new skills is costly and requires time. This chapter assesses the pandemic-induced sectoral reallocation in ASEAN countries, including Thailand. The analysis point to large skill mismatches due to the expected sectoral reallocation since the differences in skills demand between shrinking and expanding sectors are large. Given the considerable cost and time required to achieve occupational mobility, policies aimed at nurturing and

Rasmané Ouedraogo and Nicolas Syrichas

and occupational attainment. We uncover the substantial geographical variations in the degree of upward/downward educational and occupational mobility across and within African countries, and the gender and rural/urban divide. Additionally, we explore the determinants of social mobility in the African region. We find that social mobility on the continent could be partly explained by observable individual characteristics (gender, marital status, age, etc.), and that educational mobility is a driver of occupational mobility. Lastly, we show that the quality of