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Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, Christine Kamunge, Pooja Karnane, Salma Khalid, and Ms. Kalpana Kochhar
New technologies?digitalization, artificial intelligence, and machine learning?are changing the way work gets done at an unprecedented rate. Helping people adapt to a fast-changing world of work and ameliorating its deleterious impacts will be the defining challenge of our time. What are the gender implications of this changing nature of work? How vulnerable are women’s jobs to risk of displacement by technology? What policies are needed to ensure that technological change supports a closing, and not a widening, of gender gaps? This SDN finds that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men across all sectors and occupations?tasks that are most prone to automation. Given the current state of technology, we estimate that 26 million female jobs in 30 countries (28 OECD member countries, Cyprus, and Singapore) are at a high risk of being displaced by technology (i.e., facing higher than 70 percent likelihood of being automated) within the next two decades. Female workers face a higher risk of automation compared to male workers (11 percent of the female workforce, relative to 9 percent of the male workforce), albeit with significant heterogeneity across sectors and countries. Less well-educated and older female workers (aged 40 and above), as well as those in low-skill clerical, service, and sales positions are disproportionately exposed to automation. Extrapolating our results, we find that around 180 million female jobs are at high risk of being displaced globally. Policies are needed to endow women with required skills; close gender gaps in leadership positions; bridge digital gender divide (as ongoing digital transformation could confer greater flexibility in work, benefiting women); ease transitions for older and low-skilled female workers.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

International Trade Matter? ” RIETI Discussion Paper, 13-E-036 . Morikawa , M. , 2010 . “ Volatility, Nonstandard Employment, and Productivity: An Empirical Analysis Using Firm-Level Data, ” RIETI Discussion Paper, 10-E-025 . Morikawa , M. , 2013 . “ What Type of Policy Uncertainty Matters for Business? ” RIETI Discussion Paper Series 13-E-076 . Morikawa , M. , 2016 . "How Uncertain Are Economic Policies? Evidence from a survey on Japanese firms." RIETI Policy Discussion Paper Series 16-P-008 . Ono , Y. and D. Sullivan , 2013

Mr. Ashoka Mody

context of a number of simultaneous labor market changes, in particular a far-reaching liberalization of nonstandard employment, lifting most restrictions on the use of temporary agency work. So it seems more appropriate to attribute the downward trend in unemployment to the full Hartz package, the related ‘Agenda 2010’ reforms, and the parallel growth of sectors with highly flexible wages in the absence of collective agreements or binding minimum wages. Second, the moderate upward deviation from the stable downward trend of the unemployment rate experienced during

Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, Christine Kamunge, Pooja Karnane, Salma Khalid, and Ms. Kalpana Kochhar

, 2017 ). Ensuring that training and benefits are linked to individuals rather than jobs can help improve reemployment prospects for both men and women. Where needed and desired, the tax/benefit system also has an important role to play in redistributing income after market outcomes for both men and women. 37. Adapting social protection to new forms of work . The rise of flexible, nonstandard employment will put pressure on traditional forms of social protection. The eligibility for social insurance—which includes pension and unemployment benefits—has traditionally

Ms. Elif C Arbatli Saxegaard, Steven J Davis, Arata Ito, Naoko Miake, and Ikuo Saito
We develop new economic policy uncertainty (EPU) indices for Japan from January 1987 onwards building on the approach of Baker, Bloom and Davis (2016). Each index reflects the frequency of newspaper articles that contain certain terms pertaining to the economy, policy matters and uncertainty. Our overall EPU index co-varies positively with implied volatilities for Japanese equities, exchange rates and interest rates and with a survey-based measure of political uncertainty. The EPU index rises around contested national elections and major leadership transitions in Japan, during the Asian Financial Crisis and in reaction to the Lehman Brothers failure, U.S. debt downgrade in 2011, Brexit referendum, and Japan’s recent decision to defer a consumption tax hike. Our uncertainty indices for fiscal, monetary, trade and exchange rate policy co-vary positively but also display distinct dynamics. VAR models imply that upward EPU innovations foreshadow deteriorations in Japan’s macroeconomic performance, as reflected by impulse response functions for investment, employment and output. Our study adds to evidence that credible policy plans and strong policy frameworks can favorably influence macroeconomic performance by, in part, reducing policy uncertainty.
Ms. Elif C Arbatli Saxegaard, Steven J Davis, Arata Ito, Naoko Miake, and Ikuo Saito

. Ma , and S. Ng , 2015 , “ Uncertainty and Business Cycles: Exogenous Impulse or Endogenous Response? ”, NBER Working Paper No. 21803 , December 2015 . Matsuura , T. , 2013 , “ Why Did Manufacturing Firms Increase the Number of Non-regular Workers in the 2000s? Does International Trade Matter? ” RIETI Discussion Paper, 13-E-036 . McDonald , R. , and D. Siegel , 1986 , “ The Value of Waiting to Invest ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 101 ( 4 ) pp. 707 – 728 . Morikawa , M. , 2010 , “ Volatility, Nonstandard Employment, and

International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

, 2015 , “ Institutions and the Prevalence of Nonstandard Employment ,” Socio-economic Review 13 ( 2 ), 351 – 377 . Hsieh , C. , E. Hurst , C. Jones , and P. Klenow , 2019 , “ The Allocation of Talent and U.S. Economic Growth ,” Econometrica , 87 ( 5 ), 1439 – 1474 . Hyde , E. , M.E. Greene , and G.L. Darmstadt , 2020 , “ Time Poverty: Obstacle to Women’s Human Rights, Health and Sustainable Development ,” Journal of Global Health , 10 ( 2 ). Hyland , M. , S. Djankov , and P.K. Goldberg , 2020 , “ Gendered Laws and Women in the

International Monetary Fund
The study describes key features of the Austrian financial system, analyzes current trends in Austrian banking, and discusses appropriate regulatory responses to the changing financial environment. In this paper, the following statistical data are presented in detail: national income and its distribution, prices, wages, production, financing of the federal deficit, debt and debt services of the federal government, monetary aggregates and lending to domestic nonbanks, interest rates, exchange rate developments, balance of payments, capital account overview, international investment position, official development assistance, and so on.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper discusses the findings of the IMF staff research focusing on labor market dynamics, economic growth, the financial sector, private investment, and monetary policy in Japan. Japan’s labor market has fared relatively well considering the occasional substantial output losses, with unemployment remaining low. Although Japan’s employment responsiveness to the cyclical position has been relatively low, it has been rising over time reflecting the higher share of the nonregular workforce. The lower employment response to output compared with other countries during the Great Recession reflects the quick implementation of an employment subsidy program, a more flexible wage system, and strong employment protection.
International Monetary Fund

in such a case, except if positive shocks would hit the economy. b. Flexibility of employment contracts As in other industrial countries, nonstandard employment relationships are becoming increasingly common in Finland, mainly as a consequence of more capital-intensive production and increased job creation in the service sector. To reduce costs, employers call for fewer restrictions in the use of labor, and unions promote flexible options to increase overall employment. Alternatives discussed range from fixed-term contracts (limited to months or weeks of