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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Treatment of Bank Holdings of Government Bonds References THE ROLE OF SOESIN SOUTH AFRICA: ISSUES AND POLICY OPTIONS A. Introduction B. The South African SOE Landscape C. South Africa’s SOE Landscape vis-a-vis the International Perspective D. International Experience with SOE Reforms E. Policy Options FIGURES 1. Nonfinancial SOE Portfolio by Sector 2. Nonfinancial Public Enterprise Debt 3. Fiscal Support to Major SOEs 4. Productivity: Sales per Employee 5. Cost of Labor per Operating Revenue, 2015–2020 ANNEX I. Non-Financial State

International Monetary Fund

-crisis levels and nonstimulus expenditure remains stable as a percent of GDP. Under these assumptions, the public debt path would be sustainable, with the ratio stabilizing around 45 percent through the medium term. Within the stable overall ratio, direct government debt would decline relative to GDP, but the nonfinancial public enterprise debt ratio would increase throughout the period, as state firms step up their investments. This profile is resilient to most shocks . With the debt burden modest and very little debt owed externally, shocks to interest and exchange rates

International Monetary Fund

include any debt associated with off-budget military expenditure. In 2002, twice-annual reporting of a broader report began, which also includes statistics on central bank and nonfinancial public enterprise debt, and data on liquid financial assets of the same entities (including reserves), as well as other information. Box 3. Chile’s Public Debt Statistics The quality of Chile’s public debt data was previously assessed by the IMF in mid-2001, for the Data Module of the ROSC. At that time it was found that Chile’s fiscal data met the Special Data Dissemination

International Monetary Fund
The Chilean government has succeeded in constructing and disseminating a clear view of its objectives and targets, both at the macroeconomic level and for individual budget programs. Government accountability to congress and the public is demonstrably being strengthened. A general reform challenge for Chile will be to institutionalize the many recent advances in transparency, so that they become permanent components of fiscal management. The flexibility inherent in such instruments as protocols and time-bound laws may contribute importantly to speedy and effective policy responses.
International Monetary Fund
The Thai economy has demonstrated its strength in its rapid rebound from the global crisis. But the loss of its former dynamism has slowed trend growth and left it largely dependent on exports. Executive Directors encourage an infrastructure-led growth strategy to make a difference to Thailand’s medium-term outlook. The significant obstacles to this strategy is that large infrastructure projects are particularly complex, with difficulties at the design, contracting, and implementation phases. An infrastructure-led growth strategy would also require budgetary resources and strengthening the medium-term fiscal framework.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund

refinancing. 2/ Includes both loans guaranteed by the federal government and loans not guaranteed by the government. 3/ Following privatization, debt owed by Malaysia Airlines System was shifted from nonfinancial public enterprise debt to private sector debt in 1994. 4/ About RM 2.7 billion ($711 million) of private sector medium- and long-term loans was reclassified as a short-term loan in 1998. 5/ Obligations of less than one-year maturity. 6/ Refers to amounts borrowed by commercial banks. 7/ Includes other private sector debt

International Monetary Fund

privatization, debt owed by Malaysia Airlines System was shifted from nonfinancial public enterprise debt to private sector debt in 1994. 4/ About RM 2.7 billion ($711 million) of private sector medium- and long-term loans was reclassified as a short-term loan in 1998. 5/ Obligations of less than one-year maturity. 6/ Refers to amounts borrowed by commercial banks. 7/ Includes other private sector debt. Table 32. Malaysia: Medium- and Long-Term External Debt, 1997–2002 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 (In

International Monetary Fund
This report provides the analysis of the IMF's projections and estimates for Malaysia on gross domestic product by expenditures and production at constant 1987 prices and at current prices; industrial production index; labor market developments; consumer and producer price indices; federal government revenue and grants; economic and functional classification of federal government expenditure and net lending; federal government operations and fiscal operations; operations of statutory bodies, state, and local governments; general government operations; monetary survey; banking survey; international reserves; balance of payments; interbank swap transactions; developments in Malaysian exchanges during 1996–2000, and so on.