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Nicoletta Batini, Ian W.H. Parry, and Mr. Philippe Wingender
Denmark has a highly ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. While there is general agreement that carbon pricing should be the centerpiece of Denmark’s mitigation strategy, pricing needs to be effective, address equity and leakage concerns, and be reinforced by additional measures at the sectoral level. The strategy Denmark develops can be a good prototype for others to follow. This paper discusses mechanisms to scale up domestic carbon pricing, compensate households, and possibly combine pricing with a border carbon adjustment. It also recommends the use of revenue-neutral feebate schemes to strengthen mitigation incentives, particularly for transportation and agriculture, fisheries and forestry, though these schemes could also be applied more widely.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

people—both very young and very old—are seriously affected by the rising levels of pollution and it can reduce a lifespan by up to 10 years. This has also affected the tourist industry. While the situation is depressing, it is not impossible. The solution is to switch to ethanol, a fuel that already powers 4 million vehicles in Brazil. When used undiluted, there are significant reductions in carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions, not to mention the positive effects with regard to the atmosphere and global warming. In Brazil, over

Andrew Steer

technical progress to be used to address environmental problems. Some problems keep growing as income increases (carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions are current examples). Here, the costs of abatement are relatively high, while the costs of the damage are not yet perceived to be high—sometimes because they are borne by someone else. The key, once again, is policy. In most countries, individuals and firms have little reason to reform until the right incentives are put into place. The chart does not imply an inevitable relationship between income levels and particular

Prust Jim and Simard Dominique

pollutants. For example, under the Clean Ai r Act, electric utilities were allocated sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions allowances beginning in 1995 and allowed to buy and sell unused portions of these allowances as they saw fit. A tradable permits program also exists for nitrogen oxide emissions in the eastern United States. Taxation and Other Instruments to Reduce Energy Consumption Many analysts have argued that energy taxes can play an important role in achieving conservation and environmental goals. Taxes are widely viewed as an effective instrument for

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

to 66 percent). Nitrogen oxide emissions are responsible for a relatively minor share of damage (2–16 percent) because their emission rates are smaller than for SO 2 , and they are less prone to reacting in the atmosphere to form the fine particulates that give rise to major health risks. Figure 6.3 Breakdown of Air Pollution Damages from Coal by Emissions Type, Selected Countries, 2010 Source: Authors’ calculations based on methodology in Chapter 4 . Figure 6.4 shows a heat map of corrective coal tax estimates, based on average or current emission

Mr. Nicolas Arregui, Ms. Ruo Chen, Mr. Christian H Ebeke, Jan-Martin Frie, Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia, Ms. Dora M Iakova, Andreas Jobst, Louise Rabier, Mr. James Roaf, Ms. Anna Shabunina, and Mr. Sebastian Weber

, controlling for vehicle type), diesel cars emit about 15 to 20 percent less than petrol cars. However, diesel engines tend to be fitted to larger and heavier vehicles, which increases fuel consumption. As a result, sales-weighted average CO 2 emissions per km are similar for petrol and diesel cars. 15 For instance, the 2017 United Kingdom Budget announced that, from April 2018, new diesel vehicles not meeting a standard for nitrogen oxide emissions would face higher taxes to generate revenues to pay for air quality improvements. France initiated in 2016 a gradual

Ian W.H. Parry and Victor Mylonas

complicated. Much of the nitrogen oxide emissions also come from agricultural sources (soil, fertilizer practices, etc.) but again these sources may be impractical to tax (alternative approaches such as taxing fertilizer inputs could be explored, though there might be a risk of unintended consequences, like inducing a shift from crops to livestock). 28 Ideally, international offsets (where provincial entities in Canada can pay for mitigation projects in developing countries and credit the resulting emissions reductions against tax or permit requirements for their own

Nicoletta Batini, Ian W.H. Parry, and Mr. Philippe Wingender

renewable power). Estimated infrastructure costs for developing EV charging stations are relatively small, under $1bn. 20 Emissions from livestock and crop production cannot be taxed directly but proxy pricing schemes are feasible using data routinely collected on farm-level operations . Enteric fermentation in (beef and dairy) cattle herds produces methane emissions, manure management releases methane and nitrogen oxide emissions, and crop production (e.g., via fertilizers/pesticides) releases nitrogen oxide emissions. Farm-level data on livestock, feed, crop

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

industrial nitrogen oxide emissions. These reforms were part of a broader tax-shifting operation that also strengthened the value-added taxes while reducing taxes on labor and traditional energy taxes (on motor fuels and other oil products). Between 1999 and 2003, Germany increased taxes on transportation fuels and introduced new taxes on natural gas, heating fuels, heavy fuel oil, and primarily residential electricity consumption. About 85 percent of the revenue was used to fund reductions in employer and employee payroll taxes, about 14 percent was used for budget

Ian W.H. Parry and Victor Mylonas
The pan-Canadian approach to carbon pricing, announced in October 2016, ensures that carbon pricing applies throughout Canada in 2018, with increasing stringency over time to reduce emissions. Canadian provinces and territories have the flexibility to either implement an explicit price-based system—with a minimum price of CAN $10 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2018, increasing to CAN $50 per tonne by 2022—or an equivalently scaled emissions trading system. This paper discusses the rationale for, and design of, the price floor requirement; its (provincial-level) environmental, fiscal, and economic welfare impacts; monitoring issues; and (national-level) incidence. The general conclusion is that the welfare costs and implementation issues are manageable, and pricing provides significant new revenues. A challenge is that the floor price by itself appears well short of what will be needed by 2030 for Canada’s Paris Agreement pledge.