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Jaden Kim and Mr. Adil Mohommad
This brief paper accompanies the Green Energy and Jobs tool, which is a simple excel-based tool to estimate the job-creation potential of greening the electricity sector. Specifically, it calculates the net job gains or losses from increasing the level of energy efficiency, and from increasing the share of clean and renewable electricity generation in the total electricity output mix. The tool relies on estimates of job multipliers in the literature, and adds evidence from firm-level data on the job-intensity of different energy sources. The paper illustrates applications of the tool using data from the IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario compared to business-as-usual. This tool is intended to help country teams engage further on climate change issues in bilateral surveillance.
Jaden Kim and Mr. Adil Mohommad

Introduction This brief paper accompanies the Green Energy and Jobs tool, 1 which is a simple excel-based tool to estimate the job-creation potential of greening the electricity sector. Specifically, it calculates the net job gains or losses from increasing the level of energy efficiency (EE), and from increasing the share of clean electricity options in the total energy mix. This tool is intended to help country teams engage further on climate change issues in bilateral surveillance and may serve as a useful framework for discussion of green transition

Jaden Kim and Mr. Adil Mohommad

accompanies the Green Energy and Jobs tool, which is a simple excel-based tool to estimate the job-creation potential of greening the electricity sector. Specifically, it calculates the net job gains or losses from increasing the level of energy efficiency, and from increasing the share of clean and renewable electricity generation in the total electricity output mix. The tool relies on estimates of job multipliers in the literature, and adds evidence from firm-level data on the job-intensity of different energy sources. The paper illustrates applications of the tool using

International Monetary Fund

hypothesis is mixed: On the one hand, temporary layoffs have played a relatively small role in the latest cycle, consistent with the view that structural factors have grown in importance ( Schweitzer, 2004 ). In addition, the share of industries experiencing either net job gains or job losses during both phases of the last economic cycle has increased from previous cycles (Groshen and Potter, 2003). This could indicate that the share of declining or emerging industries in the economy is growing, consistent with intensifying structural change. On the other hand

Mr. David T. Coe and Mr. Se-Jik Kim

government sector, an enormous increase from 2.8 percent in 1997. Figure 4. Job Gains, Losses and Net Job Gains during the Economic Crisis (In 1,000 persons) Source: Kim (2001a) . Public sector job growth absorbed a lot of unemployed workers despite its concentration among unskilled jobs, as shown in Table 5 . The share of unskilled laborers in the government sector increased, from 10.6 percent in 1997 to 16.0 percent in 1998, and to 27.1 percent in 1999. The share of daily workers in the government sector increased much faster from 3.4 percent in 1997 to

Mr. Sakai Ando, Mr. Ravi Balakrishnan, Bertrand Gruss, Mr. Jean-Jacques Hallaert, La-Bhus Fah Jirasavetakul, Koralai Kirabaeva, Nir Klein, Ana Lariau, Lucy Qian Liu, Mr. Davide Malacrino, Mr. Haonan Qu, and Alexandra Solovyeva

the pandemic is generally adding a small, but not insignificant amount, on top ( Figure 17 ). Most of the sectors that were adversely impacted by the pandemic, for example, construction, trade, transportation, and hospitality, were set to grow strongly in the pre-pandemic baseline, with net job gains in the large four euro area countries projected at about 3½ million over the next 10 years. The pandemic, however, is estimated to result in job losses of 1¼ to 2 million (relative to the pre-pandemic baseline) in these sectors. In contrast, the job gains (relative to

International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses how financial innovation turned U.S. mortgages into an asset class with worldwide investor appeal. It suggests that U.S. financial markets have been skilful in developing tools that have helped households exploit favorable global financing conditions to boost home ownership and acquire housing wealth. It reviews trends in labor supply and demand, electricity sector challenges, oil price developments, and the performance of the U.S. economy. It analyzes U.S. banking developments, with focus on large complex banking groups (LCBGs), and describes the structural change and competition among auto manufacturers and airlines.
Ms. Valerie Cerra

employment by 2 percent more per year, creating more manufacturing and non-manufacturing jobs than non-exposed firms ( Magyari, 2017 ). Expansion of trade also leads to export growth and job creation in export industries and supply chains . General equilibrium effects can provide offsetting benefits. Indeed, job losses from the China Shock were roughly offset by job gains due to merchandise export growth in the US during 1991–2011 ( Feenstra, Ma, and Xu, 2017 ). In addition, U.S. service sector exports generated a few million jobs, leading to net job gains from trade

Ms. Valerie Cerra
This paper surveys the literature on the relationship between international trade and inclusive growth. It examines claims that the rise in inequality in many countries can be attributed to the concurrent rise in trade competition, especially from EMEs like China, spurring trade tensions and protectionist measures. The paper investigates the conflicting literature showing the aggregate benefits of trade versus the adverse and persistent impact of trade, especially import competition, on specific industries and local communities. The paper then reviews the evidence for using trade policies and other complementary policies for adjustment and compensation to those groups adversely affected by trade.
Mr. Sakai Ando, Mr. Ravi Balakrishnan, Bertrand Gruss, Mr. Jean-Jacques Hallaert, La-Bhus Fah Jirasavetakul, Koralai Kirabaeva, Nir Klein, Ana Lariau, Lucy Qian Liu, Mr. Davide Malacrino, Mr. Haonan Qu, and Alexandra Solovyeva
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by far the largest shock to European economies since World War II. Yet, astonishingly, the EU unemployment rate had already declined to its pre-crisis level by 2021Q3, and in some countries the labor force participation rate is at a record high. This paper documents that the widespread use of job retention schemes has played an essential role in mitigating the pandemic’s impact on labor markets and thereby facilitating the restart of European economies after the initial lockdowns.