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Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, and Ms. Smita Wagh
The volume of foreign aid has increased during the last four decades, albeit with interruptions in certain years. Over time, the major recipients have changed: while the share of aid to Asia has diminished since the 1980s, that destined for sub-Saharan Africa has grown. There is some evidence that, since the late 1990s, debt relief has assumed a larger share of the increased aid flows to sub-Saharan Africa. The share of technical cooperation-a component of aid that is viewed as being driven by donors-has risen. More recently, there has been an increased emphasis on providing budget support to recipient governments, especially in the form of debt relief. Donor harmonization, national ownership of development plans, and sound policies on the part of the recipients are crucial for the aid to be effective in reducing poverty.
Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, and Ms. Smita Wagh

.13 Belgium 0.12 Belgium 0.12 Luxembourg 0.12 Luxembourg 0.12 Japan 0.08 Italy 0.10 Italy 0.08 Spain 0.09 United Kingdom 0.07 United Kingdom 0.07 United States 0.07 United States 0.07 Spain 0.05 Portugal 0.04 Portugal 0.04 New Zealand 0.04 New Zealand 0.04 Source: Chang, Fernandez-Arias, and Serven(1998) . Notes: Since the net ODA flows reported here include only bilateral flows and exclude technical cooperation and debt forgiveness, they do not necessarily match

Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, and Ms. Smita Wagh
International Monetary Fund

C. Per Capita Income Threshold of US$400 III. Conditionality A. HIPCs B. Non-HIPCs C. Post-Debt Relief Monitoring D. Administrative Costs IV. Legal Considerations A. The Use of Special Disbursement Account Resources B. The Use of Contributor Resources in the PRGF Trust Subsidy Account V. Other Issues VI. Issues for Discussion Tables 1. Sources and Uses of Financing 2. Debt Relief Under the MDRI and Net ODA Flows to HIPCs Annexes I. Debt Relief for the Protracted Arrears Cases II. Countries that could be Eligible under the

International Monetary Fund

services from the Uruguay Round and other areas such as investment, competition, environment, and anti-dumping. 5 The three agricultural products are: long onions; shiitake mushrooms; and tatami surfaces. 6 Consequently, the initiative was extended to 22 HIPCs. 7 Japan’s net ODA flows declined in FY2000 following the one-off increase in the contribution to the AsDB’s Asian Currency Crisis Support Facility in FY1999. Discounting this element of $3 billion, the underlying ODA flows continued to increase in FY2000. Japan scored the fourth highest untied

International Monetary Fund
Reports on the implementation of the MDRI since December 2005, in line with the request made by Directors that a progress report be presented to the Board before the 2006 Spring Meetings. Includes a focus on the implementation of the initiative in the Fund, and covers implementation in other multilateral institutions.
International Monetary Fund

-08, amounting to an annual US$560 million on average (about US$30 million per member on average). While quite large as a share of external debt service payments, these savings remain relatively small compared with net ODA flows, which are about 30 times as high. 7 Table 2. Debt Relief from the Fund Under the HIPC Initiative and MDRI 1/ (in terms of flow reduction; in millions of U.S. dollar) 2/     2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total 20062014 3/ Benin HIPC assistance 4/ 1.3 1.3 0.0 0.0 0

International Monetary Fund

action is often coordinated within the donor community in the context of local donor coordination, consultative groups, or regional cooperation such as in the context of the EU. Table 14 . Bilateral Net ODA Flows to Developing Countries by Country and Status of IMF Supported Program, 1987-93 Period Average 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1987-89 1990-93 Change (In millions of U.S. dollars) (In percent) ESAF-eligible countries 13,843 16,143 15,989 19,667 21,344 20,819 17

Mr. Andrew Berg, Pedro Conceição, Saul Lizondo, Matthew Gaertner, Jan Gottschalk, Mr. Brett E. House, Ayodele F. Odusola, Mr. Rafael A Portillo, Ms. Laure Redifer, and Luis-Felipe Zanna

commodity price swings, civil conflicts, and natural disasters. Emergency and humanitarian aid, for instance, have been crucial in saving lives and rebuilding infrastructure and institutions. ODA has increased in recent years in real terms but remains far below the levels to which the international community has committed. The real volume of net ODA declined throughout much of the 1990s ( Figure 2.1 ). 11 In 2010, net ODA flows reached an all-time high in real terms of $128.7 billion in 2010 prices ( OECD, 2011 ). The negative trend of the 1990s reversed roughly around