Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 43 items for :

  • "middle-age worker" x
Clear All
Mr. Carlos Mulas-Granados, Mr. Richard Varghese, Vizhdan Boranova, Alice deChalendar, and Judith Wallenstein
We exploit a survey data set that contains information on how 11,000 workers across advanced and emerging market economies perceive the main forces shaping the future of work. In general, workers feel more positive than negative about automation, especially in emerging markets. We find that negative perceptions about automation are prevalent among workers who are older, poorer, more exposed to job volatility, and from countries with higher levels of robot penetration. Perceptions over automation are positively viewed by workers with higher levels of job satisfaction, higher educational attainment, and from countries with stronger labor protection. Workers with positive perceptions of automation also tend to respond that re-education and retraining will be needed to adapt to rapidly evolving skill demands. These workers expect governments to have a role in shaping the future of work through protection of labor and new forms of social benefits. The demand for protection and benefits is more significant among women and workers that have suffered job volatility.
Ronald Lee and Andrew Mason

accumulated during their working years—housing, funded pensions, and personal savings, among other things. As populations age, the support burden placed on families and governments will increase relative to GDP, a matter of great concern in many countries. But through the second dividend, increased numbers of middle-aged workers may substantially raise capital relative to GDP if policies encourage workers to save for their retirement. To the extent that countries meet the challenge of aging by expanding unfunded familial or public transfer programs, asset growth will be

International Monetary Fund

of jobs created has been the largest in the past 11 years ( Figure 2 ). The program has contributed positively to employment generation especially among the female, middle-aged workers with limited years of schooling. Figure 2. Trinidad and Tobago: Labor Market Developments, 1994–2003 Source: Central Statistical Office. Impact of the closure of the sugar company 19. The closure of CARONI in 2003 did not have a significant impact on the overall rate of unemployment . For the 9,000 workers which accepted the voluntary separation of employment

Hannes Schwandt and Till von Wachter

higher obesity rates. If these social and health effects feed back into worker productivity, impacts on economic outcomes might also reappear in the longer term. We dug into data from the US government’s Vital Statistics System, Current Population Survey, American Community Survey, and Decennial Census going back to the 1970s. We find that the negative earnings effects from entering the labor market never fully disappear. For a middle-aged worker, these losses settle at about a 1 percent earnings decline for every percentage point increase in the unemployment rate

Demetrios G. Papademetriou

. At mid-2012, nearly 42 percent of the unemployed had been jobless for 27 weeks or longer, increasing the prospect that their skills will atrophy and raising the risk that even as large numbers remain unemployed, jobs will go begging because of the growing gap between the skills available and the skills employers require (see “The Tragedy of Unemployment,” in the December 2010 issue of F&D ). Hardest hit are middle-aged workers (45 to 64 years old), who both remain unemployed longer than any other age group and find it harder to get jobs with wages similar to the

Xuejin Zuo

retired before transition to the new system (“old retirees”); Not retired but have participated in the scheme for 15 years or longer by the time of the transition (“older workers”); Participated in the scheme for fewer than 15 years (“middle-aged workers”); and Participate in the scheme after the transition (“young workers”). The suggested specific rules for these four groups are discussed below. Old retirees would continue to receive pensions at the same replacement ratio as under the old system, with no obligation to make contributions to the scheme

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

system with revenues generated from different avenues, including wage and consumption taxes. Conceptually, we tried to quantify the impact by looking at how various age groups differed, notably in wage earning. In Japan, as in most countries, you see young workers with rising income, middle-aged workers at an earnings peak, and senior workers and retirees with declining or little labor income. The age-earnings profile helped us characterize labor supply and productivity differences between age groups. And that feature helped us to quantify the impact of the changing