This Selected Issues paper examines growth, structural transformation, and diversification in Mali. At present, the majority of Mali’s population is employed in low-productivity agriculture, and the secondary sector is underdeveloped. Further structural transformation and diversification of output and exports could thus yield significant growth dividends, but will be challenging in the context of a rapid projected increase in the workforce over coming decades, much of which would need to be absorbed by the agricultural sector. Policies could focus on easing the constraints to structural transformation in key areas such as education and the business climate, as well as devising a clear strategy for tackling the challenges posed by rapid population growth.
per year over the following 5 years ( Figure 5 ). Under this assumption, Mali lost around $97 million cumulatively over the 4-year period.
Figure 5. Mali: Accountability and Growth, Alternate Scenario
(IIAG Accountability Score: Left: Axis; Real GDP Growth: Right Axis)
Sources: Ibrahim Index of African Governance
10. While our estimates say corruption costs Mali anywhere from 0.6 to 1.1 percent of GDP annually, other well-known studies have estimated even higher costs of corruption . The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative estimates that developing