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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Infrastructure 3. Public Spending FY 2009/10–2020/21 REVERTING EXPORT STAGNATION IN JAMAICA A. Introduction B. Exports Developments: A Short History C. Diversifying Into More Complex Sectors D. Export Determinants in Jamaica E. Conclusions References APPENDIX I. Complexity Determinants FIGURES 1. Complex Exports Determinants and Comparators, 2017 2. Education Indicators and Comparators 3. Logistics Performance Indicators and Comparators 4. Governance Subindices in and Comparators TABLE 1. Largest Complex Exports by Country in 2018

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Spending of Government and SOEs 7. Investment Realization by Sector 8. Direct Investment Realization 9. Manufacturing 10. Corporates EBITDA 11. Corporates Return on Assets 12. Growth: Investment-to-Capital and Credit and External Debt 13. Business Survey: Overall Industries 14. Loan and Deposit Growth 15. Drivers of Investment During 2006–2015 16. Ease of Doing Business Indicators, 2017 17. Infrastructure Ranks 18. Ranking of Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) 19. Legal and Regulatory Risk 20. Labor Market Efficiency by Rank 21. FDI

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

(Guatemala in red, fitted line in blue) Source: Human Capital Indicators and World Development indicators (World Bank) Note: Acronyms are ISO3. Values are averages of years 2016–18. Figure AIII.4. Guatemala: Export Complexity and Infrastructure (Guatemala in red, fitted line in blue) Source: Logistics Performance Indicators (World Bank). Note: Acronyms are ISO3. Values are averages of years 2016-18. Figure AIII.5. Guatemala: Export Complexity and Import Tariffs (Guatemala in red, fitted line in blue) Source: WITS Database (World Bank

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2016-1017 . Figure 18. Ranking of Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) 1 / Sources: World Bank: and IMF staff estímales. 1 / Out of 159 countries; LPI measures customs, infrastructure, international shipments, logistics, quality and competence, tracking and tracing, and timeliness. The investment climate is still weak, with high regulatory compliance costs . Investment decisions tend to be costly and timing-consuming, due to inconsistent regulations among different layers of government, and burdensome

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

, MAFF on SPS automation system, and MOC on certification of country origin automation, trade-marks registration system, and business registration automation system. Cambodia gained ranking 46 places in the Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) between 2010–14 and abolished unnecessary certificates of origin (CO) required by the importing countries. Article IV consultations . IMF Article IV consultations regularly share their macroeconomic data with the World Bank and hold working sessions to try and reconcile macroeconomic data sets. The collaboration is closest on

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

ranking 56 places in the Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) in 2010-16, and abolished unnecessary certificates of origin (CO) required by the importing countries. Article IV consultations . IMF Article IV consultations regularly share their macroeconomic data with the World Bank and hold working sessions to try and reconcile macroeconomic data sets. The collaboration is closest on the debt sustainability analysis, a joint product, but extends more broadly into other areas of the consultation as well. World Bank staff are also invited to attend key meetings. The

International Monetary Fund
The aim of this paper is to address the implications of Global Value Chains (GVCs) for the Fund’s surveillance work. The paper first draws on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to document the dynamics of trade linkages between countries and regions through GVCs and its impact on the real economy. The paper then examines the implications of GVCs for the real effective exchange rate (REER), a key tool used at the Fund for bilateral as well as multilateral surveillance work, and shows the potential benefit of revisiting the REER formula in light of the increasing relevance of GVCs. The paper ends with implications of GVCs for trade and trade-related policies and the multilateral trading system
International Monetary Fund

). Simultaneity between trade policy choices and the level of exports relative to GDP is dealt with by using explanatory variable of the previous year. 32 Arvis and others (2013) use standardized regression coefficient to compare betas from variables that have different units of measurement, such as tariffs and logistics performance indicators. 33 Prepared by Michele Ruta. 34 Differences across countries, including policies, quality of institutions, development of the financial sector, generate comparative advantage and thereby contribute to explaining the patterns

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the capital inflows to Indonesia since the global financial crisis. Capital inflows to Indonesia have increased since the crisis. Their average volume increased from 3.25 percent of GDP in 2005–09 to 4.50 percent of GDP in the first quarter of 2010 to the third quarter of 2016. From the global perspective, driven by the liquidity released from the systemic economies’ unconventional monetary policies, a global search for yields has led to large capital inflows to emerging and developing economies (EMDEs), especially portfolio inflows. Although many EMDEs experienced a steady decline in capital inflows during 2013–16, capital inflows to Indonesia increased and reached a peak in late 2014, and then started to decline but remained at relatively high levels from the first quarter of 2015 to the third quarter of 2016.