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Mr. Francesco Caselli, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Mr. Damiano Sandri, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo
Lockdowns and voluntary social distancing led to significant reduction in people’s mobility. Yet, there is scant evidence on the heterogeneous effects across segments of the population. Using unique mobility indicators based on anonymized and aggregate data provided by Vodafone for Italy, Portugal, and Spain, we find that lockdowns had a larger impact on the mobility of women and younger cohorts. Younger people also experienced a sharper drop in mobility in response to rising COVID-19 infections. Our findings, which are consistent across estimation methods and robust to a variety of tests, warn about a possible widening of gender and inter-generational inequality and provide important inputs for the formulation of targeted policies.
Mr. Francesco Caselli, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Mr. Damiano Sandri, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo

. Women’s mobility falls by 26 percentage points seven days after the introduction of lockdowns, while that of men declines by about 21 percentage points. Panel 5b shows that the differential between the mobility of women and that of men is statistically significant until the lockdown impulse weakens 15 days after the initial tightening. These results corroborate the findings of the RD analysis that lockdowns tend to impact women disproportionately. The RD analysis also showed that the gender differential is the largest for people aged 25–44, probably because they are

Mr. Francesco Caselli, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Mr. Damiano Sandri, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo