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Marian Moszoro
We evaluate the direct employment effect of the public investment in key infrastructure—electricity, roads, schools and hospitals, and water and sanitation. Using rich firm-level panel data from 41 countries over 19 years, we estimate that US$1 million of public spending in infrastructure create 3–7 jobs in advanced economies, 10–17 jobs in emerging market economies, and 16–30 jobs in low-income developing countries. As a comparison, US$1 million public spending on R&D yields 5–11 jobs in R&D in OECD countries. Green investment and investment with a larger R&D component deliver higher employment effect. Overall, we estimate that one percent of global GDP in public investment can create more than seven million jobs worldwide through its direct employment effects alone.
Jaden Kim and Mr. Adil Mohommad

increasing the renewable share of generation will contribute net jobs. However, the range of estimates for solar photovoltaic technology is also sizable ( Figure 2 , 3 ). Figure 1. Job elasticities (Direct + Indirect} (Job-years per GWH) Source: Kammen, Wei, and Patadia (2010) Figure 2. Total person -yea rs/GWh by type of energy (thousand job-years/GWh) Figure 3. Total person -yea rs/GWh by type of energy (thousand job-years/GWh) Units of measurement : The template calculates employment in terms of job-years per gigawatt-hour (GWH

Marian Moszoro

increases payroll and employment. Construction companies’ revenues come from public and private contracts. Construction companies arguably behave similarly in terms of employment efficiency regarding the source of revenue. Thus, estimating the job elasticity to revenue gives a first-order estimation of the direct job creation impact of public investment at the firm level. While reverse causality from employment to revenues is expected to occur in businesses driven by marketing and salesforce efforts (e.g., consumer goods and services), it is less likely in construction

Jaden Kim and Mr. Adil Mohommad
This brief paper accompanies the Green Energy and Jobs tool, which is a simple excel-based tool to estimate the job-creation potential of greening the electricity sector. Specifically, it calculates the net job gains or losses from increasing the level of energy efficiency, and from increasing the share of clean and renewable electricity generation in the total electricity output mix. The tool relies on estimates of job multipliers in the literature, and adds evidence from firm-level data on the job-intensity of different energy sources. The paper illustrates applications of the tool using data from the IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario compared to business-as-usual. This tool is intended to help country teams engage further on climate change issues in bilateral surveillance.