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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper on Nepal measures the extent to which Nepal’s households change their expenditure patterns and labor supply in response to remittances, using the Nepal Household Risk and Vulnerability Survey—2016 and employing a propensity score matching method. This study provides stylized facts on migrant workers and remittance-recipient households (HH), and then analyzes the effect of remittances on HHs' expenditure patterns and labor supply. Reliance on remittances, both at the macro and household levels, makes Nepal highly vulnerable to shifts that could diminish remittance inflows. The slowdown in growth of remittances has been significant since 2016, owing to weak economic performance in major remittance-sending economies and less outward migration. This study also analyzes the effect of remittances on labor market participation of left behind household heads, using a propensity score matching method. The results show that remittances have supported greater consumption of productive goods (such as durable goods, education and health), without discouraging labor supply of remittance-receiving family members.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

operate as payment service providers in Nepal. 5. Basic infrastructure to support fintech payments are developing in Nepal . Electricity supply is increasing and becoming more reliable as hydropower projects come to fruition. Cellular network is expanding to rural areas, with the number of Nepalese owning cellular lines exceeding 100 percent. The slow speed of cellular data does not appear to be a hinderance for operation of mobile money. 6. Fintech payment methods have largely been used for making invoice payments . More than 9 million Nepalese use fintech payment

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

’s Electricity Purchase and Net Loss 28. EGTC’s Revenue and Receivables 29. Projections and Actuals of Domestically Financed Development Expenditure 30. Spending for Makeni-Kamakwe-Medinaoula Road Project 31. Project Delay and Total Cost Increase of 12 Road Projects 32. Failure Rate of Transmission Lines 33. Transfer to the RMFA 34. Existing Project Selection Process 35. Length of Road Work per Person Under Township Road Projects 36. Average Delay in Invoice Payments 37. Outturn Minus Budgets of Development Exp TABLES 1. Summary Assessment 2

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

procurement framework; construction commenced without complete designs; and frequent and significant project changes caused cost overshoot and confused the project implementation. This led to extremely delayed and unpredictable invoice payments; budget allocations far below unpaid multiyear contracts; and some projects delayed for a decade. Significant delay in payments is a main cause of accumulation of arrears. The Public Investment Management Department (PIMD) of the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development (MoPED) has taken significant efforts to develop the public

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
Sierra Leone has made significant strides to rebuild its public infrastructure after the devastating civil war, but the desperate infrastructure needs remain. At the end of the conflict in 2002, the country was left with virtually no infrastructure. Redevelopment of public infrastructure was ignited by the mining boom, which started in the late 2000s. Over the period 2008−18, public investment averaged 6.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), which has translated into an estimated capital stock of about 65 percent in constant 2011 GDP. However, a level of public investment is still lower than neighboring countries by about one percentage point. The level of capital stock per capita is one of the lowest in the region, only slightly above that of Liberia. Some districts still have no paved roads, no electricity, and no water systems, almost 20 years after the war.