Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for :

  • "international services trade" x
Clear All
Ms. Natalia T. Tamirisa, Mr. Alexander Lehmann, and Mr. Jaroslaw Wieczorek
This paper reviews the characteristics of international trade in services and of the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) framework, which was established to regulate it. Further liberalization of services trade in developing countries, as currently envisaged in the context of the WTO Doha Development Agenda, holds a number of potential benefits, such as underpinning the liberalization of goods trade, but it is also being resisted due to its potential adjustment costs. Two implications for IMF activities are examined: coherence among the three principal international economic institutions and sequencing with macroeconomic stabilization and regulatory reforms.
Ms. Natalia T. Tamirisa, Mr. Alexander Lehmann, and Mr. Jaroslaw Wieczorek

of payments. Many developing countries have benefited from exports of construction, banking, and professional services or from services transactions based on telecommunications networks (such as data processing and entry, and software production). Remittances from nationals residing abroad and the compensation of residents temporarily employed abroad represent important currency revenues, in some countries rivaling export receipts. Furthermore, international services trade has important implications for capital flows. Recent estimates suggest that nearly 60 percent

Andrew Giddings, Emran Islam, Kathleen Kao, and Emanuel Kopp

. Promoting biomedical research may call for greater data sharing, but could conflict with privacy. Increasing competition in financial services could expand the perimeter of service providers, challenging integrity and stability. Internationally, cooperation is critical to contain fragmentation of the global digital economy, which could harm developing economies in particular through the emergence of a digital and data availability divide. Data is the ultimate mobile factor, with cross-border data flows underpinning a rapidly growing proportion of international services

Samuel Guerineau

stimulation remain disappointing. An explanation lies with the limited effective power granted to the institutions and supranational decisions, as it is particularly difficult to ensure the implementation of a ruling outside of the country where it was made (exequatur procedure). Regional service trade within the WAEMU is badly documented and appears weak. International service trade mainly focuses on transportation, communication, energy, tourism, education, professional services (those offered by accountants, legal counselors, architects, and engineers), and finance

Mr. Vikram Haksar, Mr. Yan Carriere-Swallow, Emran Islam, Andrew Giddings, Kathleen Kao, Emanuel Kopp, and Gabriel Quiros
The ongoing economic and financial digitalization is making individual data a key input and source of value for companies across sectors, from bigtechs and pharmaceuticals to manufacturers and financial services providers. Data on human behavior and choices—our “likes,” purchase patterns, locations, social activities, biometrics, and financing choices—are being generated, collected, stored, and processed at an unprecedented scale.
International Monetary Fund

. Wanner , R. Bitetti , and O. Barbiero . 2015 . “ The 2013 Update of the OECD’s Database on Product Market Regulation: Policy Insights for OECD and non-OECD Countries .” OECD WP No. 1200 . Kox , H. and A. Lejour . 2005 . “ Regulatory Heterogeneity as Obstacle for International Services Trade ,” CPB Discussion Paper 49 , CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis . Krueger , A . 2017 . “ Where Have All the Workers Gone? An Inquiry into the Decline in the U.S. Labor Force Participation Rate .” Brookings Papers on Economic

International Monetary Fund
Trade integration can play a much larger role in boosting shared prosperity. The current focus on trade tensions threatens to obscure the great untapped benefits possible from further trade reform. The opportunities provided by information technology and other fundamental changes in the global economy are yet to be reflected in modern areas of trade policy, such as services and electronic commerce. Greater openness in these areas would promote competition, lift productivity, and raise living standards. In many other areas, such as the rural economy, smaller enterprises, and women’s economic empowerment, trade-related reforms are important particularly to foster more inclusive growth. Harnessing flexible approaches to WTO negotiations may be the key to reinvigorating global trade reform. Despite the benefits at stake—and with important exceptions such as the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement—trade reform has lagged since the early 2000s. For much of this period, governments focused their efforts in the WTO on a single negotiating approach. Now, as groups of WTO members pursue joint initiatives in several areas, attention is turning to how other negotiating approaches—including some used effectively in the past—can be leveraged so that trade once again plays its full role in driving increased global economic prosperity. Building greater, more durable openness—this paper’s focus—should be part of a broader effort to strengthen and reinvest in the global trading system. The system of global trade rules that has nurtured unprecedented economic growth across multiple generations faces tensions. Though only recently brought to the fore, those tensions are rooted in issues that have been left unresolved for too long. Governments need to promptly address outstanding questions involving, for example, the WTO dispute system and the reach of subsidy disciplines. Cooperative action to secure greater openness—an imperative in its own right—could also help to resolve these
Mr. Kimberly D. Zieschang and Mr. Jemma Dridi
Export and import price indices are essential for assessing the impact of international trade on the domestic economy. Among their most important uses are analyzing developments in the trade balance, measuring foreign prices' contribution to domestic inflation, and deflating nominal values of exports and imports for estimating the volume of gross domestic product. This paper discusses the main uses of trade indices and the data sources used to compile them. It also presents various approaches used to compile foreign trade price indices, addresses various problems encountered in developing these indices, and provides some recommendations on how to address them.
Mr. Kimberly D. Zieschang and Mr. Jemma Dridi

. There is one exception to excluding mode 3 from international services trade. It involves the residency status in the host country of a services establishment of a nonresident enterprise. If the establishment does not meet the criteria for residency in the host country (e.g., a short-lived establishment operating in the host country for less than one year), it is not a direct investment enterprise of the BPM5 and 1993 SNA. Therefore, the establishment’s output is an import to the host country. 20 It is, however, still a commercial presence in the language of

International Monetary Fund

. Data from these sources are supplemented with information from the SCC on the international merchandise trade statistics, data on the international services trade derived from 10 surveys conducted by the SSC, data on FDI in the non-oil sector from the SSC, data on the external loan liabilities from the MOF, and information on the government’s external transactions from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The data sources are broadly sufficient to compile the balance of payments statistics. The existing “open ITRS” was established in 1994 and is a first step toward