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International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

aggregate reopening index, which measures the cumulated easing actions in each country at a given point of time. 4 The regression controls for country and time fixed effects (to capture common trends and time-invariant country characteristics such as demographics), lagged mobility, lagged infection incidence, a dummy that indicates the time elapsed since the first reopening action (to control for the endogeneity related to the timing of the exit from lockdown), and country-specific infection time trends. The results suggest that a marginal change in the reopening index

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused dramatic loss of human life and major damage to the European economy, but thanks to an exceptionally strong policy response, potentially devastating outcomes have been avoided.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Abstract

This chapter was prepared by Kamil Dybczak, Carlos Mulas Granados, and Ezgi Ozturk with inputs from Vizhdan Boranova, Karim Foda, Keiko Honjo, Raju Huidrom, Nemanja Jovanovic and Svitlana Maslova, under the supervision of Jörg Decressin and the guidance of Gabriel Di Bella. Jaewoo Lee and Petia Topalova provided useful advice and comments. Nomelie Veluz provided administrative support. This chapter reflects data and developments as of September 28, 2020.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Abstract

Christian Ebeke (co-lead), Nemanja Jovanovic, Svitlana Maslova, Francisco Parodi, Laura Valderrama (co-lead), Svetlana Vtyurina, and Jing Zhou prepared this chapter under the supervision of Mahmood Pradhan and the guidance of Laura Papi and Petia Topalova. Jörg Decressin provided useful advice and comments. Jankeesh Sandhu provided outstanding research assistance, and Nomelie Veluz was expertly in charge of administrative support.

International Monetary Fund

maternal health target. Another key maternal health issue is early pregnancy as in spite of the awareness programs on adolescent reproductive health issues, 11% of all births are among 15 to 19 year olds or teenage mothers. Anaemia prevalence rates too are high and remain a critical maternal health issue. According to available health data for 2007, women comprised 55% of the total number of people living with HIV/AIDS with infection incidence highest among house-wives. The reasons for women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS are generally attributed to the lack of awareness

International Monetary Fund
Bhutan has evolved from a closed economy to a trading nation that exhibits a high degree of dependence on trade. Exports have grown rapidly but overall the country’s trade deficit continues to widen owing to an even faster growth in the value of imports. The manufacturing and industry sector is constrained by various factors that impede its further development. FDI and joint ventures are some of the mechanisms that must be actively promoted to help jump start the process.