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Tahsin Saadi Sedik
COVID-19 has exacerbated concerns about the rise of the robots and other automation technologies. This paper analyzes empirically the impact of past major pandemics on robot adoption and inequality. First, we find that pandemic events accelerate robot adoption, especially when the health impact is severe and is associated with a significant economic downturn. Second, while robots may raise productivity, they could also increase inequality by displacing low-skilled workers. We find that following a pandemic, the increase in inequality over the medium term is larger for economies with higher robot density and where new robot adoption has increased more. Our results suggest that the concerns about the rise of the robots amid the COVID-19 pandemic seem justified.
Tahsin Saadi Sedik

applications,” as defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO). This excludes dedicated industrial robots that serve one purpose such as equipment dedicated for loading/unloading of machine tools and dedicated assembly equipment ( IFR, 2018a ). Consolidating data provided by nearly all industrial robot suppliers worldwide, the IFR provides robot shipment and stock data for 75 countries, with the industry breakdown according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of all economic activities revisions 4 from 2010 onward, and 2 or 3 in

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

to United Nations Principles for Responsible Investment 7. ESG-Listed Funds Available in Singapore Asset Class Breakdown 8. Environmental Disclosure by Companies listed on SGX 9. Environmental Disclosure by Companies listed on SGX and Peers 10. Cumulative Amount of Green Bonds Listed at Exchanges 11. Green Bonds Listed on SGX Breakdown by Country of Domicile, 2012–2020 12. Singapore Sustainable Debt Issuance Industry Breakdown 13. Singapore Green Loans Issuance Industry Breakdown 14. Singapore Green, Social, and Sustainability Bond Issuance Industry

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

was issued in February 2019 by Insurance Australia Group. Subsequently, two World Bank Philippines cat bonds were listed on the SGX (the first ever on SGX and on an Asian exchange) on November 2019. The World Bank bonds finance up to US$225 million of protection against earthquakes and cyclones in the Philippines over the next three years. Figure 12. Singapore Sustainable Debt Issuance Industry Breakdown (Percent of Total Issuances, 2017 to 2020) Sources: BloombergNEF, IMF staff calculation Figure 13. Singapore Green Loans Issuance Industry