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Mr. Alun H. Thomas

SSA, we separate agriculture completely and split non-agricultural employment between HEs and wage employment in industry or services. 2 Our employment categories are: Agricultural employment – predominantly farmers working on small holdings and consuming a significant share of their production, but including more commercialized farmers as well. Wage work in agriculture as a primary activity is included in this category as well as fishing and primary forestry (collecting wood and other forest products). Household enterprise employment – HEs are

Ms. Louise Fox, Cleary Haines, Ms. Jorge Huerta Munoz, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

well. Wage work in agriculture as a primary activity is included in this category as well as fishing and primary forestry (collecting wood and other forest products). Household enterprise employment —Household enterprises are unincorporated, nonfarm businesses owned by households. This category includes self-employed people running unincorporated businesses (which may or may not employ family or other workers) and family members working in those businesses. Wage employment (industry or services) —includes all labor force participants who report working outside

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This chapter discusses the impact of global recession on the working population and looks at the future of work in the global economy from a variety of angles. IMF economist Prakash Loungani leads off with an overview of the global jobs landscape and examines the reasons behind the slow recovery of jobs in the wake of the global financial crisis. The chapter also highlights an argument for a jobs- and wage-led global recovery, while IMF researchers probe the relationship between declining trade union membership and inequality.
Ms. Louise Fox, Cleary Haines, Ms. Jorge Huerta Munoz, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
Estimates of the current and future structure of employment in sub-Saharan Africa (2005–20) are obtained based on household survey estimates for 28 countries and an elasticity-type model that relates employment to economic growth and demographic outcomes. Agriculture still employs the majority of the labor force although workers are shifting slowly out of the sector. Sub-Saharan Africa’s projected rapid labor force growth, combined with a low baseline level of private sector wage employment, means that even if sub-Saharan Africa realizes another decade of strong growth, the share of labor force employed in private firms is not expected to rise substantially. Governments need to undertake measures to attract private enterprises that provide wage employment, but they also need to focus on improving productivity in the traditional and informal sectors as these will continue to absorb the majority of the labor force.
Ms. Louise Fox, Cleary Haines, Ms. Jorge Huerta Munoz, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countries in multinomial logit models with propensity score matching method. The analysis confirms that education opens up opportunities for women to escape agricultural feminization and engage in formal wage employment, but these opportunities diminish when women marry—a disadvantage increasingly relevant when countries develop and urbanization progresses. Opening a household enterprise offers women an alternative avenue to escape low-paid jobs in agriculture, but the increase in per capita income is lower than male-owned household enterprises. These findings underline that improving women’s education needs to be supported by measures to allow married women to keep their jobs in the wage sector.
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

analysis reveals that while the effect of higher education on access to wage employment is broadly similar for single men and women in low and low-middle income countries, the access becomes highly unequal once women marry. As a rising share of the wage sector is one of the features of advancing development and urbanization, this obstacle to wage employment causes a deepening of the gender gap in the labor market as countries become richer The welfare analysis indicates that the welfare effect associated with household enterprise employment and wage employment are not

Bruce Edwards

help finance social programs such as pension plans and health care. But with 90 percent of jobs in either small informal household enterprises or subsistence agriculture, workers have little chance of landing a formal job with benefits. IMF senior economist Alun Thomas said, “Although wage employment (paid work outside the agriculture sector) is often mentioned as the ultimate objective in employment policy, household enterprise employment is most likely to provide the bulk of new jobs going forward.” And although small household businesses generally don’t pay

Mr. Alun H. Thomas
This paper documents the structural transformation in employment that has taken place in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past 15 years. In contrast to Asian economies, where at least half of the labor flows out of agriculture have gone into industry, in SSA, most of the workers have ended up in the service sector, especially household enterprises. Rwanda has been one of the stellar performers in SSA in terms of structural transformation with the strongest movement of workers out of agriculture. Contrary to conventional wisdom, except for the very top of the distribution of consumption in Rwanda, families in household enterprises now consume as much as non-agricultural wage earners.
Ms. Louise Fox
This paper reviews the evidence on how households in Sub-Saharan Africa segment along consumption, income and earning dimensions relevant for quantitative macroeconomic policy models which incorporate heterogeneity. Key findings include the importance of home-grown food in the income and consumption of house-holds well up the income distribution, the lack of formal financial inclusion for all but the richest households, and the importance of non-wage income. These stylized facts suggest that an externally-generated macroeconomic shock and the short-term policy response would mainly affect the behavior and welfare of these richer urban households, who are also more likely to have the means to cope. Middle class and poor households, especially in rural areas, should be insulated from these external shocks but vulnerable to a wide range of structural factors in the economy as well as idiosyncratic shocks.