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Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Tarik Yousef, and Mr. Pierre Dhonte
The working age population is expected to grow faster in the Middle East than in any other region in the world between now and 2015—rising annually by 2.7 percent, or 10 million people. This demographic explosion presents the region with a major challenge in terms of providing jobs, incomes, and housing for the growing population, but the expanding labor force can also be seen as an opportunity to generate higher per capita income growth on a sustainable basis. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of market-friendly institutions in turning the challenge into opportunity.
Mr. Pierre Dhonte

.0 Sources: Employment, 1975–2000: International Labor Organization Yearbook , various years, except Iran, national estimates; population working-age projections: World Bank, World Development Report database, 1999. 1 Or closest available. 2 Level in percentage of labor force. 3 Contribution in points to the desired increase in employment. In all countries, the growth of the working-age population provides by far the greatest contribution to the targeted employment growth. Such employment growth requirements are much higher than those

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Tarik Yousef, and Mr. Pierre Dhonte

Front Matter Page Middle Eastern Department Contents I. Introduction II. The New Demography of MED III. MED’s Demographic Gift IV. Employment Opportunities V. Housing Construction as an Engine of Growth VI. Policy Implications Tables 1. Selected Regions: Key Population Data, 1970, 2000, 2015 2. Selected Regions: Age Structure of the Population, 1970, 2000, 2015 3. Selected MED Countries: Employment, 1973–2015 4. Selected MED Countries: The Augmented Demographic Gift 5. Selected MED Countries: Total Factor Productivity Growth

International Monetary Fund

Bangladesh A. Introduction B. Overview of the Banking Sector C. Performance of the Banking Sector D. Outstanding Reform Priorities Boxes III. 1. Evolution of Laws to Enhance Recovery of Delinquent Loans Figures III. 1. Risk-Weighted Assets and Deposits of Banks Annexes III. 1. Detailed Banking Sector Indicators IV. Growth Requirements for Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh A. Introduction B. Growth Scenario for Achieving the IDA Operational Ceiling by 2027 C. Poverty Reduction Implied by the Growth Scenario D. Conclusions Figures

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

infrastructure spending to at least 5.0 percent of GDP in 2016 in order to support the growth requirements in the coming years. Government spending will be supplemented by private sector investments through public-private partnerships (PPPs), allowing public resources to be freed up for social spending. Over the years, PPPs have become an increasingly important tool for accelerating infrastructure development. At present, there are 50 PPP projects in the pipeline worth over US$23 billion. Since 2011, ten PPP contracts, totaling over US$4 billion, have been successfully awarded

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Tarik Yousef, and Mr. Pierre Dhonte

calculations suggest that, over the next 15 years, employment in the seven countries will need to rise on average by an astounding compound growth rate of over 4 percent, with a “low” target of 3.6 percent in the Arab Republic of Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia, and a “high” figure of 5.0 percent in Algeria. 4 In all countries, the growth of the working age population provides by far the greatest contribution to the targeted employment growth. Such employment growth requirements are much higher than those registered in the fastest job-creating regions of East Asia and the

Mr. Ralph Chami

needed in order to absorb the expected entrants into the labor market over the projection period. The requirements to be specified are exactly the same as in Scenario 1: the percent change in employment, cumulative and yearly, and the required annual real GDP growth needed to absorb the new entrants into the workforce over the projected years. Scenario 3 : Requirements for reducing unemployment by a certain percentage . Using the same three employment and real GDP growth requirements, this scenario examines what needs to change in order for the unemployment rate

Mr. Ralph Chami
This note is a reference guide for the unemployment template, an econometric tool that allows researchers to analyze and project labor market indicators for any country with sufficient data coverage. Section I explains the motivation behind designing a new surveillance tool to study labor markets, and summarizes the key features of the template. Section II details the data inputs needed and their sources. Section III describes the methods used to estimate the employment-growth elasticity, a measure of the extent to which employment responds to output. Section IV outlines the medium-term outlook table and projection charts created by the template once the inputs are customized to generate an appropriate elasticity. Finally, Section V presents a discussion on how to interpret the results produced by the template, and of the issues that arise from projecting labor market indicators.
Sergio Clavijo

and early 1970s, the timing and deepness of each country’s structural reforms have been different. The differences in approach to establishing an “apertura economica,” or open economy, have not yet been evaluated. Second, the mini-international debt crisis triggered by the Mexican exchange rate difficulties in late 1994 and early 1995 and the attendant fears of possible contagion effects, make it prudent to re-examine the stance of the external sector policies in Chile and Colombia. Particular attention should be given to the export growth requirements to stabilize