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International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

gap, at one percent of turnover, is much lower than estimated a year ago. However, the number of companies at risk of a fall from investment grade is elevated (at triple pre-pandemic levels), and there are pockets of vulnerabilities in contact-intensive sectors and SMEs (which may be exposed now that government support programs have largely sunset). Figure 6. United Kingdom: Credit Developments Figure 7. United Kingdom: Residential Real Estate Developments Figure 8. United Kingdom: Commercial Real Estate Developments Note: 2020 data

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

is the energy and coal sector. The sector alone accounts for about 1 percent of GDP (see Box 6 ). Subsidies have been increasing over time reflecting large losses at SOEs ( Table 4 ) and reflect mostly the gap between the production cost of goods and services provided by SOEs and the price charged to consumers or intermediate users. Large subsidies to finance government support programs can be found in different sectors, including energy, infrastructure and agriculture, and local governments ( Table 4 ). Box 6. Coal Mining Sector Subsidies The energy sector

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

the maximum envelope, with considerable cross-country variation. Staff analysis shows that government support programs could be effective in addressing a large part of corporate liquidity needs, especially in AE, although much less so as far as equity needs are concerned ( Chapter 3 ). Figure 1.5. Fiscal Policy Support: New Spending Measures and Tax Deferrals Sources: National authorities; and IMF staff calculations. Note: AE = advanced economies; EE = emerging market economies. COVID-19 = coronavirus disease. Country abbreviations follow those of the

International Monetary Fund

Channels Tables 1. Government Support Programs to Facilitate SMEs Financing, 2008–2011 2. Comparison of Selected Government-Affiliated Financial Institutions (GFIs) 3. Summary Statistics of the Corporate Sector—By Industry and Capital Size 4. Performance and Soundness of SMEs 5. Regression Estimates on Corporate Adjusted Net Profit 6. Estimated Share of Credit Guarantees for SMEs, by bank types Figures 1. Background on Credit Intermediation 2. Household Savings and Credit 3. Financial Retail Innovation 4. Corporate Capital Structure under Low