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Ms. Gabriela Inchauste
Recent efforts at poverty alleviation emphasize increasing government spending on education. However, even if spending were perfectly targeted, it is not evident that spending by itself will lead to higher educational attainment. Bolivian household data is used in this paper to ascertain the probability of an individual quitting school due to financial or other reasons. Simulations show that government cash transfers can help to improve educational attainment somewhat. However, nonmonetary limitations must also be addressed if educational attainment is to improve significantly, in particular, for indigenous women who have the lowest levels of education in the country.
Ms. Gabriela Inchauste

liberalize its economy, improve public sector management, reform public administration, and more recently, increase its social spending, particularly on education. Nevertheless, despite some progress, social indicators continue to lag with respect to other Latin American countries, and poverty and inequality remain widespread. The analysis undertaken here uses household data to find the determinants of educational attainment in Bolivia, given individual characteristics and constraints. The estimates are then used to simulate whether a government cash transfer would

Delphine Prady, Hervé Tourpe, Sonja Davidovic, and Soheib Nunhuck
During the 2020 pandemic, the majority of countries have provided income support to households at an unprecedented speed and scale. Social distancing measures and the large penetration of mobile phones in emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) have encouraged government-to-person (G2P) transfers through mobile platforms. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for sustainable money solutions in support of social assistance. The framework consists of eight building blocks that may help policymakers i) take stock and assess emergency fixes taken to scale up mobile money in a crisis context and ii) develop sustainable long-term solutions for mobile G2P transfers.
International Monetary Fund


This report overviews countries fiscal actions in response to COVID-19 and discusses how governments policies should adapt to get ahead of the pandemic and set the stage for a greener, fairer, and more durable recovery. Global vaccination should be scaled up as it can save lives and will eventually pay for itself with stronger employment and economic activity. Until the pandemic is brought under control globally, fiscal policies must remain flexible and supportive, while keeping debt at a manageable level over the long term. Governments also need to adopt comprehensive policies, embedded in medium-term frameworks, to tackle inequalities—especially in access to basic public services—that were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and may cause income gaps to persist. Investing in education, healthcare and early childhood development and strengthening social safety nets financed through improved tax capacity and higher progressivity, can strengthen lifetime opportunities, improve trust, and contribute to more social cohesion.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

higher than in Peru (text charts). Real Labor Productivity and Real Minimum Wage (2003 = 100) Sources: INEC. BCE. ILO and Fund staff calculations. Minimum Monthly Nominal Salary (In US$) Source: National authorities and Haver. Labor Income and Government Cash Transfers (Average labor income in $US; cash transfers in % of labor income) Source: INEC 2. The pandemic widened disparities among labor market participants and compounded pre-existing labor market weaknesses, putting a premium on la Ley de Oportunidades Laborales being

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper focuses on the Iraqi oil sector and analyzes the developments and prospects after the twin shock. The Iraqi economy was affected by the two major challenges during 2014—ISIS insurgency and the fall in global oil prices. Iraq’s oil sector has performed well despite the security challenges that emerged after the onset of the ISIS insurgency in June 2014. On average, Iraq earned $97 per barrel on oil exported in 2014. Asia remained the leading destination of the Iraqi oil exports during 2013–14, and its share increased from 50 percent in 2012 to 65 percent in 2014.