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Mr. Tigran Poghosyan
We analyze determinants of sovereign bond yields in 22 advanced economies over the 1980-2010 period using panel cointegration techniques. The application of cointegration methodology allows distinguishing between long-run (debt-to-GDP ratio, potential growth) and short-run (inflation, short-term interest rates, etc.) determinants of sovereign borrowing costs. We find that in the long-run, government bond yields increase by about 2 basis points in response to a 1 percentage point increase in government debt-to-GDP ratio and by about 45 basis points in response to a 1 percentage point increase in potential growth rate. In the short-run, sovereign bond yields deviate from the level determined by the long-run fundamentals, but about half of the deviation adjusts in one year. When considering the impact of the global financial crisis on sovereign borrowing costs in euro area countries, the estimations suggest that spreads against Germany in some European periphery countries exceeded the level determined by fundamentals in the aftermath of the crisis, while some North European countries have benefited from “safe haven” flows.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economy of The Philippines continues to perform well but is facing new challenges. Real GDP growth is projected to grow strongly in 2018 and 2019, supported by domestic demand. However, poverty and inequality challenges remain, inflation has risen, and external uncertainty has increased. The medium-term economic outlook remains favorable, but short-term risks have risen. Real GDP growth is projected at just under 7 percent over the medium term. Inflation is projected at above the 4 percent upper target bound in 2018 and stay in the upper half of the target band during 2019–2020. The current account deficit is projected to remain manageable, financed largely by foreign direct investment.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This paper discusses recent developments, outlook and risk, and policies required for a long-lasting recovery of Thailand’s economy. Thailand remains resilient in the face of external and internal challenges. However, political uncertainty and structural bottlenecks cloud long-term prospects. The economy recovered in 2015 after a slowdown induced by political uncertainty. Public investment supported economic activity, particularly through community-based infrastructure projects. Monetary policy was eased in the face of below-target inflation. The credit cycle moderated, but household debt reached a historic high. Implementing high-quality fiscal stimulus, easing monetary policy, and safeguarding financial sector stability can strengthen long-term sustainability, equity, and efficiency of Thailand’s economy.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that Indonesia has maintained macroeconomic stability, while adjusting well to recent shifts in the external environment. A prudent mix of macroeconomic policies and the launch of structural reforms have helped the economy weather slow global growth, the commodity down cycle, and several episodes of financial turbulence affecting emerging market economies. Growth in 2016 is projected at 5 percent on account of robust private consumption. In 2017, growth is expected to rise modestly to 5.1 percent, led by a gradual pickup in private investment in response to stronger commodity prices, low interest rates, and a recovery in external demand on the back of a pickup in global growth and trade.