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Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

’s welfare estimations cannot well control for self-selection bias in employment sector outcomes. Based on the existing literature, our paper deepens the understanding why females are left behind in wage employment opportunities . Using household survey data, this paper applies a multinomial logit model to study the employment sector structure according to gender and explains the root causes of gender employment differences in SSA multi-sector labor markets. This approach goes far beyond the traditional approach of assessing the gender gap in labor markets by comparing

Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countries in multinomial logit models with propensity score matching method. The analysis confirms that education opens up opportunities for women to escape agricultural feminization and engage in formal wage employment, but these opportunities diminish when women marry—a disadvantage increasingly relevant when countries develop and urbanization progresses. Opening a household enterprise offers women an alternative avenue to escape low-paid jobs in agriculture, but the increase in per capita income is lower than male-owned household enterprises. These findings underline that improving women’s education needs to be supported by measures to allow married women to keep their jobs in the wage sector.