This paper examines gender inequality in the context of structural transformation and rebalancing in China. We document declining women's relative wages and labor force participation in China during the last two decades, despite rapid growth and expansion of the service sector. Using household data, we provide evidence consistent with a U-shaped relationship between economic development and women's labor market outcomes. Using a model of structural transformation, we show that labor market barriers for women have increased over time. Model counterfactuals suggest that removing these barriers and increasing service sector productivity can boost both gender equality and economic growth in China.
Mr. Christian Gonzales, Ms. Sonali Jain-Chandra, Ms. Kalpana Kochhar, Ms. Monique Newiak, and Mr. Tlek Zeinullayev
This study shows empirically that gender inequality and income inequality are strongly interlinked, even after controlling for standard drivers of income inequality. The study analyzes gender inequality by using and extending the United Nation’s Gender Inequality Index (GII) to cover two decades for almost 140 countries,. The main finding is that an increase in the GII from perfect gender equality to perfect inequality is associated with an almost 10 points higher net Gini coefficient. For advanced countries, with higher gender equity in opportunities, income inequality arises mainly through gender gaps in economic participation. For emerging market and developing countries, inequality of opportunity, in particular in education and health, appear to pose larger obstacles to income equality.
The genderearningsgap directly adds to income inequality, while unequal access to education, health services, and financial resources, as well as legal barriers, may result in unequal chances in accessing better jobs and opportunities over the life cycle.
Gender inequality and poverty
Gender disparities result in a greater vulnerability of women to poverty. 17 Women everywhere perform more unpaid work than men, and children and dependents are an important factor in defining their working arrangements, especially during their reproductive years
This paper considers various dimensions and sources of gender inequality and presents policies and best practices to address these. With women accounting for fifty percent of the global population, inclusive growth can only be achieved if it promotes gender equality. Despite recent progress, gender gaps remain across all stages of life, including before birth, and negatively impact health, education, and economic outcomes for women. The roadmap to gender equality has to rely on legal framework reforms, policies to promote equal access, and efforts to tackle entrenched social norms. These need to be set in the context of arising new trends such as digitalization, climate change, as well as shocks such as pandemics.
This paper documents that inequality in labor earnings increased substantially during the economic transition in Poland. One surprising result is that earnings inequality increased markedly in both the private and public sectors, indicating that even state-owned enterprises in Poland moved toward competitive wage setting during the transition. Education premia increased sharply, while experience premia declined. Increases in within-group inequality account for about 60 percent of the increase in overall wage inequality. But, contrary to the experience of countries like the United States, increases in within-group inequality in Poland were very different across skill groups, with much larger increases for highly educated workers.
urgently needed investments, such as in COVID-19 testing and treatment in communities of color, in policies that expressly and progressively support low-wage workers and care workers, and in engagement with minority-owned small businesses. Otherwise, pervasive inequities will be further entrenched.
A significant reason for the genderearningsgap is the lack of a national paid family and medical leave policy and the absence of a national program to ensure that families have access to quality, affordable childcare and prekindergarten education. Families with children
almost 15 percentage points in 2020. The increase in genderearningsgap is even more pronounced. While many countries have moved closer to parity, China now ranks 106th in the global gender gap rankings among 153 countries slipping from 63rd position in 2006, according to the World Economic Forum (2019) report.
The COVID-19 pandemic is bringing these issues to the fore in light of its disproportionate impact on women and their employment opportunities in China and elsewhere ( Alon, Doepke, Slmstead-Rumsey, and Tertilt, 2020 ; Dang and Nguyen, 2021 ; Bluedorn