Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 35 items for :

  • "gender earnings Gap" x
Clear All
Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, Christine Kamunge, Pooja Karnane, Salma Khalid, and Ms. Kalpana Kochhar
New technologies?digitalization, artificial intelligence, and machine learning?are changing the way work gets done at an unprecedented rate. Helping people adapt to a fast-changing world of work and ameliorating its deleterious impacts will be the defining challenge of our time. What are the gender implications of this changing nature of work? How vulnerable are women’s jobs to risk of displacement by technology? What policies are needed to ensure that technological change supports a closing, and not a widening, of gender gaps? This SDN finds that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men across all sectors and occupations?tasks that are most prone to automation. Given the current state of technology, we estimate that 26 million female jobs in 30 countries (28 OECD member countries, Cyprus, and Singapore) are at a high risk of being displaced by technology (i.e., facing higher than 70 percent likelihood of being automated) within the next two decades. Female workers face a higher risk of automation compared to male workers (11 percent of the female workforce, relative to 9 percent of the male workforce), albeit with significant heterogeneity across sectors and countries. Less well-educated and older female workers (aged 40 and above), as well as those in low-skill clerical, service, and sales positions are disproportionately exposed to automation. Extrapolating our results, we find that around 180 million female jobs are at high risk of being displaced globally. Policies are needed to endow women with required skills; close gender gaps in leadership positions; bridge digital gender divide (as ongoing digital transformation could confer greater flexibility in work, benefiting women); ease transitions for older and low-skilled female workers.
Heather Boushey

urgently needed investments, such as in COVID-19 testing and treatment in communities of color, in policies that expressly and progressively support low-wage workers and care workers, and in engagement with minority-owned small businesses. Otherwise, pervasive inequities will be further entrenched. A significant reason for the gender earnings gap is the lack of a national paid family and medical leave policy and the absence of a national program to ensure that families have access to quality, affordable childcare and prekindergarten education. Families with children

Mariya Brussevich and Ms. Era Dabla-Norris

almost 15 percentage points in 2020. The increase in gender earnings gap is even more pronounced. While many countries have moved closer to parity, China now ranks 106th in the global gender gap rankings among 153 countries slipping from 63rd position in 2006, according to the World Economic Forum (2019) report. The COVID-19 pandemic is bringing these issues to the fore in light of its disproportionate impact on women and their employment opportunities in China and elsewhere ( Alon, Doepke, Slmstead-Rumsey, and Tertilt, 2020 ; Dang and Nguyen, 2021 ; Bluedorn

Arnold McIntyre, Mr. Takuji Komatsuzaki, and Mr. Mauricio Vargas

generally is scarce. The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB (2016)) documents broad stylized facts on poverty and social conditions in the Caribbean as well as inequality, and estimates determinants of poverty. Bellony, Hoyos, and Ñopo (2010) focus on documenting stylized facts of gender earnings gaps in two countries, Barbados and Jamaica. Data availability is a major obstacle to studying income inequality more rigorously, as household budget surveys are regularly conducted in very few countries. Solt (2019) achieves the largest coverage by extensive imputation. This

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

, on average, 32 percent less than men. About a third of this earnings gap can be explained by factors such as age, number of children, education, and industry of employment, while the remaining two-thirds is unexplained, suggesting some gender discrimination in the labor market ( World Bank, 2014c ). The gender earnings gap is largest in the urban areas and is greater than in any other Latin American or African country. In rural areas, female-headed households (of which 62 percent are poor) are much more likely to fall below the indigence poverty line than are male

Mariya Brussevich and Ms. Era Dabla-Norris
This paper examines gender inequality in the context of structural transformation and rebalancing in China. We document declining women's relative wages and labor force participation in China during the last two decades, despite rapid growth and expansion of the service sector. Using household data, we provide evidence consistent with a U-shaped relationship between economic development and women's labor market outcomes. Using a model of structural transformation, we show that labor market barriers for women have increased over time. Model counterfactuals suggest that removing these barriers and increasing service sector productivity can boost both gender equality and economic growth in China.
Arnold McIntyre, Mr. Takuji Komatsuzaki, and Mr. Mauricio Vargas
Rising income inequality has emerged as a major policy issue facing policymakers, but there is a dearth of empirical work on inequality in small states, including the Caribbean. Despite data limitations, the empirical analysis using a sample of small states finds that increased openness and deeper economic integration including financial market openness is associated with lower income inequality, whereas elevated debt levels limit fiscal space and are associated with higher income inequality. An important policy implication is that well targeted social sector spending aimed at improving education and health indicators will support increased redistribution and reduce income inequality.
Ms. Stefania Fabrizio, Diego B. P. Gomes, Carine Meyimdjui, and Marina M. Tavares

education. Moreover, among those that have finished secondary education, more than 70 percent are men, reflecting the gender education gap, which is still large in many developing countries. In addition to the gender education gap, the data also reveals a pervasive gender earnings gap across levels of education. Overall, men earn double than women. However, the earnings gap decreases with levels of education. For example, men with no education diploma earn 2.3 times more than their female counterparts. Among those with tertiary education, the earnings gap shrinks to 1