Whereas most of the literature related to the so-called “resource curse” tends to emphasize on institutional factors and public policies, in this research we focus on the role of the financial sector, which has been surprisingly overlooked. We find that countries that have financial systems with more depth, as well as those that actively manage their central banks’ balance sheets experience less exchange-rate appreciation than countries that do not. We analyze the relationship between these two findings and suggest that they appear to follow separate mechanisms.
The staff report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation on the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste highlights economic developments and policies. Progress has been made in consolidating the new government’s administrative power and fostering a stable political environment, despite some early challenges. Despite progress in economic reconstruction, significant economic challenges remain. These challenges center on the strengthening of medium-term growth prospects to alleviate widespread poverty. Given the constraints of the current regime, prudent fiscal and wage policies will be essential to help avoid attrition in Timor-Leste’s external competitiveness.
Timor-Leste had made good progress in establishing the basis for a stable and healthy economy prior to the civil unrest in 2006, although it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. This 2006 Article IV Consultation highlights that real non-oil GDP growth turned positive in 2004–05 after contracting for two years. Macroeconomic stability was achieved through the early adoption and maintenance of prudent fiscal and monetary policies. The authorities have maintained a policy of avoiding domestic or external borrowing, hence there is no public sector debt.
This Selected Issues paper examines productivity, growth, structural reforms, and macroeconomic policies in Tanzania. Tanzania experienced macroeconomic stabilization and significant structural change over the last three decades, including two major waves of reforms, first in the mid-1980s and more importantly in the mid-1990s. Both reform waves were followed by total factor productivity (TFP) and growth spurts. Over the recent period, TFP growth decreased, which coincided with a less strong reform drive. It is suggested that a TFP-led growth model is superior and that vigorous reforms are needed to foster further structural transformation of the economy and sustain high productivity gains and investment.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.