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International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
The war in Ukraine risks derailing the global economic recovery at a time when many countries have yet to overcome the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic. Disruptions have already a severe impact on commodity markets, trade, and financial conditions, while inflation has become a major challenge in many countries and is adding to social pressures. The combination of shocks amplifies complex policy trade-offs that require astute macroeconomic management, for Emerging Market and Developing Economies (EMDEs), this includes preparing for higher interest rates that would translate into costlier terms of borrowing. Fuel and food price increases as well as food insecurity affect vulnerable populations the most, especially in low-income developing countries (LIDCs). Moreover, many LIDCs have only minimal or no policy space to absorb the war’s economic and financial spillovers. Reallocating spending and raising more revenues is paramount, as is advancing reforms that promote resilience. However, LIDCs also need support from the international community to finance priority expenditures and deal with often elevated debt burdens. Multilateral cooperation is more important than ever, and the IMF stands ready to help its members through policy advice, capacity development, and, where needed, financial support.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

The war in Ukraine risks derailing the global economic recovery at a time when many countries have yet to overcome the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic. Disruptions have already a severe impact on commodity markets, trade, and financial conditions, while inflation has become a major challenge in many countries and is adding to social pressures. The combination of shocks amplifies complex policy trade-offs that require astute macroeconomic management, for Emerging Market and Developing Economies (EMDEs), this includes preparing for higher interest rates that would translate into costlier terms of borrowing. Fuel and food price increases as well as food insecurity affect vulnerable populations the most, especially in low-income developing countries (LIDCs). Moreover, many LIDCs have only minimal or no policy space to absorb the war’s economic and financial spillovers. Reallocating spending and raising more revenues is paramount, as is advancing reforms that promote resilience. However, LIDCs also need support from the international community to finance priority expenditures and deal with often elevated debt burdens. Multilateral cooperation is more important than ever, and the IMF stands ready to help its members through policy advice, capacity development, and, where needed, financial support.

International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

Market and Developing Economies (EMDEs), this includes preparing for higher interest rates that would translate into costlier terms of borrowing. Fuel and food price increases as well as food insecurity affect vulnerable populations the most, especially in low-income developing countries (LIDCs). Moreover, many LIDCs have only minimal or no policy space to absorb the war’s economic and financial spillovers. Reallocating spending and raising more revenues is paramount, as is advancing reforms that promote resilience. However, LIDCs also need support from the

Shlomo Reutlinger

percent for rice (globally, the respective coefficients of variation were 5 percent, 4 percent, and 3 percent). Finally, the coefficient of variation of export earnings in developing countries—an indicator of a country’s ability to import food—was about 15 percent, almost double the instability of export earnings in industrial countries. Aggregate data usually hide more than they reveal about how transitory food insecurity affects individual households because increases in food production or incomes in one part of a country offset declines in another. In India in 1968

International Monetary Fund

groups in its newly adopted social protection strategy . In rural Burundi, food insecurity affects about 30 percent of the population in harvest periods, and up to 60 percent during lean periods. In 2008, rural households’ top three shocks where water deficit, inflation, and hail. Also, the cost of health services is the top reason why sick people in Burundi do not consult health facilities when needed. A National Social Protection Policy was adopted in 2011 with sequenced actions, which are expected to be prioritized with a sector MTEF by late 2012. Staffs welcome the

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper elaborates the introduction of surveillance that gave the IMF broader responsibilities with respect to oversight of its members’ policies than existed under the par value system. The IMF’s purview has been broadened under the new system but, by the same token, its members are no longer obliged to seek its concurrence in changes in exchange rates. The continuing volatility of exchange rates, and their prolonged divergence from levels that appear to be sustainable over time, have been matters of growing concern.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

up to 2015, which provides for preventive measures that target information and early warning systems at food insecurity and vulnerable groups, as well as various actions covering the sub-areas of emergency assistance and micro-development projects. Box 5. Overview of the National Food Security Strategy 1. Rationale and issues In Mauritania, food insecurity affects 26 percent of the population, primarily in rural areas, with women, children under five years of age, young people, small-scale producers, disabled persons, and the unemployed the most

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper examines the Islamic Republic of Mauritania’s adoption of its third Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) action plan, covering the medium term (2011–2015). Poverty reduction as the ultimate objective of all of the country’s economic social and institutional development policies has informed the context in which the third action plan is being implemented. The safe drinking water supply rate reached 52 percent nationally. In urban areas, the rate of access to private water main connections was 35 percent although it varied significantly from town to town. During the first year of implementation of the PRSP III, significant progress was made with actions targeting good governance and capacity-building in all areas of governance.
International Monetary Fund

’ consumption) to cover their food needs. Their crop yields and the income generated by cash crops are very low. 269. Furthermore, the proportion of households in severe food insecurity headed by women is much higher. Consequently, severe food insecurity affects more the single parent households headed widowers and widows and households that depend on precarious sources of income such as the sale of wood or straw, daily-paid work, petty trade and handicraft. It also affects a high proportion of farmer households. 270. When faced with food insecurity, households adopt

International Monetary Fund
The Government of the Republic of Niger has implemented the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS), which describes the country's macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction. This strategy is based on the conviction that poverty can be reduced through strong and sustained economic growth that creates wealth and jobs. The study is the outcome of a concerted analysis. The first part outlines the diagnosis and key factors of poverty and the second part presents the major challenges, vision, overall goals, and strategic pillars.