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Mr. Juan S Corrales and Patrick A. Imam
Using a newly complied and extended database from International Financial Statistics, and applying different panel-regression techniques, this paper documents the evolution of households’ and firms’ dollarization over the past decade. We assess the macroeconomic determinants of dollarization for households and firms and explore differences between high and low-income countries. We find that households’ and firms’ dollarization in loans and deposits are weakly explained by the currency substitution model, except in low income countries, where inflation plays a significant role. Instead, market development variables such as financial deepening, access to external debt and FX finance as well as other market considerations are key to explain the dynamics of deposits and loans dollarization, regardless of the level of income.These factors can account for a significant fraction of the dollarization, but using a variance decomposition model, there is evidence that a non-negligible portion has yet to be explained. This suggests that there are key determinants for household and firm dollarization that are not fully captured by traditional macroeconomic explanatory variables.
Sebastian Dörr and Mr. Mehdi Raissi

relying on instruments or proxies. We indeed find that our exposure variable is highly correlated with retrieved bank-supply factors, i.e. fluctuations in bank credit supply net of firm characteristics and general credit conditions, and is orthogonal to credit demand factors. Results are robust to the inclusion of time-varying fixed effects at the borrower level. After establishing that credit supply shocks reduce firmsloan growth, we show that credit supply rationing has real effects. 3 Firms with higher exposure to troubled banks reduced their investment and

Sebastian Dörr and Mr. Mehdi Raissi
The Italian economy has been struggling with low productivity growth and bank balance sheet strains. This paper examines the implications for firm productivity of adverse shocks to bank lending in Italy, using a novel identification scheme and loan-level data on syndicated lending. We exploit the heterogeneous loan exposure of Italian banks to foreign borrowers in distress, and find that a negative shock to bank credit supply reduces firms' loan growth, investment, capital-to-labor ratio, and productivity. The transmission from changes in credit supply to firm productivity relates to labor market rigidities, which delay or distort the adjustment of firms' desired labor and capital allocations, and thereby reduce firms' productivity. Effects are stronger for firms with higher capital intensity and external financial dependence.