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Ajit Singh, Mr. Rudolph Matthias, and Mr. Jack D. Glen
This large empirical study of corporate profitability in emerging markets during the 1980s and 1990s measures the intensity of competition. Data on corporate rates of return, profit margins, and output-capital ratios reveal that the recent liberalization has been associated with reduced corporate profit margins and improved capital utilization efficiency. The paper also analyzes persistency in corporate profitability and finds that competitiveness was no less intense in developing countries than in advanced countries. Although the paper is not directly concerned with the Asian crisis, it provides evidence on important structural hypotheses about the crisis.
Ajit Singh, Mr. Rudolph Matthias, and Mr. Jack D. Glen
Ajit Singh, Mr. Rudolph Matthias, and Mr. Jack D. Glen

This large empirical study of corporate profitability in emerging markets during the 1980s and 1990s measures the intensity of competition. Data on corporate rates of return, profit margins, and output-capital ratios reveal that the recent liberalization has been associated with reduced corporate profit margins and improved capital utilization efficiency. The paper also analyzes persistency in corporate profitability and finds that competitiveness was no less intense in developing countries than in advanced countries. Although the paper is not directly concerned with the Asian crisis, it provides evidence on important structural hypotheses about the crisis.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

, climate change has become an increasingly important topic since the onset of the pandemic, as is evident from firmsearnings calls transcripts (see Box 5.1 ). More generally, an increased awareness of the benefits of long-term disaster prevention could facilitate implementation of green policy measures such as carbon taxes. 4 Against this backdrop, this chapter aims to address the following two key questions: (1) How has the COVID-19 crisis affected green financing so far? (2) What can be learned from past economic crises about the likely behavior of the corporate