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Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake

containerization facilitates sharing the functionality of hardware and a single operating system. Cloud computing relies on these technologies to provide customers with a specified quantity of ICT functionality when it is needed, while reducing the amount of ICT equipment that they themselves own and maintain. Amongst the f irst companies to provide these services was Amazon, which had developed pooled computing resources for internal functions that they then offered to external customers b e gin nin g in 2006. Cloud computing services vary based on the type of ICT resources

Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake
Digitalization and the innovative use of digital technologies is changing the way we work, learn, communicate, buy and sell products. One emerging digital technology of growing importance is cloud computing. More and more businesses, governments and households are purchasing hardware and software services from a small number of large cloud computing providers. This change is having an impact on how macroeconomic data are compiled and how they are interpreted by users. Specifically, this is changing the information and communication technology (ICT) investment pattern from one where ICT investment was diversified across many industries to a more concentrated investment pattern. Additionally, this is having an impact on cross-border flows of commercial services since the cloud service provider does not need to be located in the same economic territory as the purchaser of cloud services. This paper will outline some of the methodological and compilation challenges facing statisticians and analysts, provide some tools that can be used to overcome these challenges and highlight some of the implications these changes are having on the way users of national accounts data look at investment and trade in commercial services.