this rapid economic expansion, which makes Vietnam a suitable case for the study of export dynamics and the evolution of exporters.
What do firm-level data from Vietnam tell us?
First, indirect exporting is a temporary state: the probability of remaining an indirect exporter for two consecutive years is lower than the probability of remaining a direct exporter. Second, indirect exporters graduate faster: they are more likely than nonexporters to shift to direct exporting in subsequent years. Finally, indirect exportinghelps build sales networks abroad: among