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Gabriel Soderberg, Ms. Marianne Bechara, Wouter Bossu, Ms. Natasha X Che, Sonja Davidovic, Mr. John Kiff, Ms. Inutu Lukonga, Mr. Tommaso Mancini Griffoli, Tao Sun, and Akihiro Yoshinaga
Central banks are increasingly pondering whether to issue their own digital currencies to the general public, so-called retail central bank digital currency (CBDC). The majority of IMF member countries are actively evaluating CBDCs, with only a few having issued CBDCs or undertaken extensive pilots or tests. This paper shines the spotlight on the handful of countries at the frontier in the hope of identifying and sharing insights, lessons, and open questions for the benefit of the many countries following in their footsteps. Clearly, what can be gleaned from these experiences does not necessarily apply elsewhere. The sample of countries remains small and country circumstances differ widely. However, the insights in this paper may inspire further investigation and allow countries to gain time by building on the experience of others. Importantly, the purpose of this paper is not to evaluate the courses taken by different jurisdictions, but to study and discuss their key experiences and lessons. The paper studies six advanced CBDC projects, drawing on collaboration and exchanges with the respective central banks to get insights beyond what has previously been published. Unless a specific published source is cited, all information stems from interviews and workshops with members of CBDC project teams in each jurisdiction.
International Monetary Fund
As in other advanced economies, there has been a significant run-up of household debt in Sweden during the last two decades accompanied by rising housing prices, prompting concerns about sustainability and the implications for financial stability. The rise in household debt and the banking system’s increased exposure to mortgage debt resulted with the changes in the macroeconomic environment. The note explores implications for financial stability of household indebtedness as well as Sweden's specific institutional features to ensure resilience of the financial system.
International Monetary Fund

unemployment, a rapid increase in interest rates, and a decline in real estate prices. 3. This note explores the implications for financial stability of household indebtedness by evaluating the household sector’s financial position, as well as Sweden specific institutional features to ensure resilience of the financial system . We conclude that while on the face of it, risks appear similar to elsewhere in Europe—where recent housing booms and busts have produced banking sector stresses—several Sweden-specific institutional and structural features of the mortgage market