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Ms. Louise Fox, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, and Cleary Haines
This paper provides the most complete analysis of the structural transformation among low- and low-middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa to date.
Ms. Louise Fox, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, and Cleary Haines

urbanization (economic densification). A demographic transition, resulting in a lower number of dependents and slower growth of the labor force, usually accompanies the output and employment transitions and facilities the shift of the labor force as the growing modern sector can absorb a larger share of new entrants to the labor force when there are not so many entering. Output Since the mid-1990s, sub-Saharan Africa has had its longest continuous expansion in over 50 years. Economic growth averaged about 4 percent per annum among upper-middle-income countries and

Mr. John C Bluedorn, Francesca Caselli, Mr. Niels-Jakob H Hansen, Mr. Ippei Shibata, and Marina M. Tavares
Using individual-level data for 30 European countries between 1983 and 2019, we document the extent and earning consequences of workers’ reallocation across occupations and industries and how these outcomes vary with individual-level characteristics, namely (i) education, (ii) gender, and (iii) age. We find that while young workers are more likely to experience earnings gains with on-the-job sectoral and occupational switches, low-skilled workers’ employment transitions are associated with an earnings loss. These differences in earnings gains and losses also mask a high degree of heterogeneity related to trends in routinization. We find that workers, particularly low-skilled and older workers during recessions, experience a severe earning penalty when switching occupations from non-routine to routine occupations.
Mr. John C Bluedorn, Francesca Caselli, Mr. Niels-Jakob H Hansen, Mr. Ippei Shibata, and Marina M. Tavares

(see for instance, Mortesen and Pissarides 1994, Groshen and Potter, Jaimovich and Siu 2014). On the other hand, some find that employment-to-employment transitions are more frequent during expansions rather than recessions (Barlevy 2002, Carrillo-Tudela and others 2016 ). Table 4 shows (i) job-to-job ( EE_job ), (ii) on-the-job sectoral switch ( EE_sec ), (iii) on-the-job occupational switch ( EE_occ ), (iv) via unemployment occupational switch ( UE_occ ) during expansions, recessions, and recoveries. We also show the earning changes associated with on