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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper tries to answer the question of how to promote employment in Uganda. It also discusses key stylized facts including labor market challenges, an overview of the labor market, and employment characteristics. Although issues relating to the determinants of employment are gaining momentum in Uganda, the literature is largely based on economic reports and qualitative studies. Uganda has implemented some social programs aimed at creating employment specifically for youth and women, though coverage is limited. These programs aim at providing an enabling environment for the private sector to create jobs and build the skills and requisite knowledge to make youth and women more employable. The existing social programs are good initiatives to address some of the labor market issues, though their coverage remains limited with funding constraints identified as one of the main challenges. Creating quality jobs will require comprehensive policies to promote headline growth and ensure inclusive growth, including measures to improve education and address challenges in gender and youth.
Mr. Carlos Mulas-Granados, Mr. Richard Varghese, Vizhdan Boranova, Alice deChalendar, and Judith Wallenstein
We exploit a survey data set that contains information on how 11,000 workers across advanced and emerging market economies perceive the main forces shaping the future of work. In general, workers feel more positive than negative about automation, especially in emerging markets. We find that negative perceptions about automation are prevalent among workers who are older, poorer, more exposed to job volatility, and from countries with higher levels of robot penetration. Perceptions over automation are positively viewed by workers with higher levels of job satisfaction, higher educational attainment, and from countries with stronger labor protection. Workers with positive perceptions of automation also tend to respond that re-education and retraining will be needed to adapt to rapidly evolving skill demands. These workers expect governments to have a role in shaping the future of work through protection of labor and new forms of social benefits. The demand for protection and benefits is more significant among women and workers that have suffered job volatility.
Valentina Flamini and Mr. Frederik G Toscani
We document the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Brazilian labor market focusing on employment, wages and hours worked using the nationally representative household surveys PNAD-Continua and PNAD COVID. Sectors most susceptible to the shock because they are more contact-intensive and less teleworkable, such as construction, domestic services and hospitality, suffered large job losses and reductions in hours. Given low income workers experienced the largest decline in earnings, extreme poverty and the Gini coefficient based on labor income increased by around 9.2 and 5 percentage points, respectively, due to the immediate shock. The government’s broad based, temporary Emergency Aid transfer program more than offset the labor income losses for the bottom four deciles, however, such that poverty relative to the pre-COVID baseline fell. At a cost of around 4 percent of GDP in 2020 such support is not fiscally sustainable beyond the short-term and ended in late 2020. The challenge will be to avoid a sharp increase in poverty and inequality if the labor market does not pick up sufficiently fast in 2021.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

in the world, promoting employment is crucial for economic development and inclusive growth in Uganda. 2. This paper tries to answer the question of how to promote employment in Uganda . The sections are organized as following: section B provides a short literature review; section C discusses key stylized facts including labor market challenges, an overview of the labor market, and employment characteristics; and section D concludes with policy recommendations. B. Literature Review 3. While issues relating to the determinants of employment are gaining

Ali Alichi, Rodrigo Mariscal, and Daniela Muhaj

Population Share by Class 4. Wolfson’s Polarization Index and Gini Coefficient, 1970–2016 5. Population Share Index 6. Polarization by Employment/Employee Category 7. The Hollowing-Out Index 8. Changes in Lorenz Curves 9A Hollowing-out Index by State, 2016 9B. Hollowing-out Indices 1977–2016 10. Polarization Indices 11. State Real Median Income and Household Characteristics 12. Histograms: Offshorability and Routinizability Scores; and Offshoring and Routinization Levels 13. State Real Median Income and Employment Characteristics 14A. Contributions

International Monetary Fund

. Institutional Capacity for Implementation of the GSPS IX. RISKS TO EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GSPS A. Risks and Uncertainty Analysis B. The Energy Crisis C. Loss of International Donor Support D. Inability to Attract Private Foreign Investment E. Failure to Increase Productivity and Competitiveness F. Time Frame and Scheduling X. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION TABLES 1. Millennium Development Goals 2. The Incidence of Poverty in Dominica 3. Geographic Distribution of Household Poverty 4. Employment Characteristics 5. Housing

Mr. Carlos Mulas-Granados, Mr. Richard Varghese, Vizhdan Boranova, Alice deChalendar, and Judith Wallenstein

characteristics, and policy preferences. In addition, this survey deliberately excludes highly-educated workers, and focuses instead on understanding the perceptions of less educated and lower income workers and middle-skilled workers. We start by examining the role of personal and employment characteristics in explaining perceptions of automation. 3 In line with our expectation, we find that negative perceptions about how automation will affect the future of work are prevalent among workers who are older, poorer, and exposed to job volatility. Furthermore, workers with

Paul Glewwe and Gillette Hall

Lima became less equal between 1985–90, despite policy goals to the contrary. Changes in consumption expenditures by household characteristics . One way to examine the change in consumption expenditures from 1985–86 to 1990 is to look at gender, education level, and employment characteristics of household heads. Table 3 highlights three results. Table 3 Identifying the poorest families in Lima Percent change in per capita monthly consumption since 1985–86 Sex Male -54.5 Female -54.9 Education level