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Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Explores different ways of controlling pollution through -green-taxes or permits, and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. While many countries use environmental taxes, interest in tradable permits is growing.

International Monetary Fund

the near future, listing a reduction in the unemployment rate as the number one priority, and also laying out specific tax reform measures and spending decisions. Included in these were; a reform of the personal and business income tax; an ecotax reform for environmental purposes as well as to lower wage costs; a solid fiscal policy with a continuation of public investment; savings in the government wage bill; increased government transparency; and, an enhanced coordination of macroeconomic policies within Europe. Finally, the program highlighted preliminary

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

other international agreements to cut greenhouse gas emissions in response to growing evidence of global warming. The lead role played by some countries, such as Norway , in the international arena assured a prominent position for ecotax reform on the domestic policy agenda. And because the OECD and European Union have taken innovative steps toward ecotax reform, these organizations have become key focal points for discussions and information exchange on these issues among developed countries. Indeed, the EU has adopted a separate burden-sharing agreement to enable

International Monetary Fund

and Beyond Fiscal consolidation measures of the fiscal program 2000 Tax reform measures of the fiscal program 2000 F. Impact of the Fiscal Program on the Medium-Term Fiscal Outlook References Text Boxes II-1. March 1999 Income Tax Legislation II-2. The Ecotax Reform II-3. Pension Reform Measures II-4. Business Income Tax Reform, Proposed to Begin in 2001 Text Tables II-1. Marginal Tax Rates on Personal Income and Retained Corporate Earnings in the EU (Including Local Taxes) II-2. General Government Finances, 1994-1999 II-3. General

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes the link between Germany’s economic performance and institutions, taking a long-term perspective and focusing on the labor market. The thesis of the paper is that Germany’s institutional arrangements worked exceptionally well during the Wirtschaftswunder era of rapid catch-up growth, resulting in an economic performance that was envied by much of the world. The paper also examines fiscal consolidation and tax reform proposals, and describes the wage structure in Germany.
International Monetary Fund

of nonwage labor costs inherited from the past, and had taken a series of steps to make room for lower social contribution rates . First, measures were being taken to contain the burden of social benefit spending, specifically by indexing pension benefits to prices rather than net wages for the next two years. Second, the government is committed to a green tax swap that uses increased ecotaxes (on mineral oils and electricity, levied mainly on households) to finance an across-the-board cut in social contributions. The first step of the ecotax reform went into

International Monetary Fund
This 1999 Article IV Consultation highlights that the monetary conditions in Germany have eased significantly since late 1998, reflecting both policy actions and exchange rate developments. Short-term interest rates were reduced by the Bundesbank to 3 percent in December 1998 and, in the new context of European Monetary Union, by the European Central Bank to 2½ percent in April 1999. The depreciation of the euro against other currencies since its inception in January 1999 has also been supportive of activity.
Hansen Stein

created all sorts of emotions. In response to Herman Daly, in Norway we have a Green Tax Commission to look into the scope of ecotax reform. We can give some answers in the context of our CGE model, for example, what happens to the public budget (that is a sum of the state budgets and the municipal budgets in Norway), if we could replace payroll taxes, for example, by ecological taxes. CO 2 tax is one tax that could provide a fairly stable revenue for the government, but that does not seem to be true of the other environmental taxes. Ved Gandhi : Three or four