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Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

leaders”—reveals that emission taxes can generate significant amounts of revenue. Despite these broad developments, any strong, general move toward comprehensive green tax reforms has been limited to just a handful of countries. Figure 2. Revenues from Environmentally Related Taxes in 1995 (Millions of U.S. dollars) Source: OECD (1999). Developed, reform-oriented countries can be divided into two groups. Countries in the first group—the “ecotax leaders,” including Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden—have radically reformed their tax systems to

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Cette brochure examine les avantages et inconvénients relatifs des écotaxes et des permis comme outils de maîtrise de la pollution. Alors que de nombreux pays recourent aux écotaxes, l'intérêt pour les permis négociables augmente.

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Explores different ways of controlling pollution through -green-taxes or permits, and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. While many countries use environmental taxes, interest in tradable permits is growing.

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Explores different ways of controlling pollution through -green-taxes or permits, and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. While many countries use environmental taxes, interest in tradable permits is growing.

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Se examinan diferentes formas de controlar la contaminación a través de impuestos o licencias “verdes” y se evalúan sus ventajas y desventajas. Si bien muchos países utilizan impuestos ambientales, el interés en los permisos negociables va en aumento.

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Explores different ways of controlling pollution through -green-taxes or permits, and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. While many countries use environmental taxes, interest in tradable permits is growing.

Ms. Valerie Reppelin and Mr. John Norregaard

Abstract

Explores different ways of controlling pollution through -green-taxes or permits, and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. While many countries use environmental taxes, interest in tradable permits is growing.

Mr. John Norregaard and Ms. Valerie Reppelin

than the MAC Function 3. Pollution Control when the MD Function is Steeper than the MAC Function 4. Revenues from Environmentally Related Taxes in Percent of Total Tax Revenue and GDP, 1995 5. Revenues from Environmentally Related Taxes in 1995 Appendixes I. Country Experiences with Environmental Taxes: The Ecotax Leaders II. Country Experiences with Tradable Permits Systems References

Mr. John Norregaard and Ms. Valerie Reppelin
This paper examines the relative merits of two dominant economic instruments for reducing pollution—”green” taxes and tradable permits. Theoretically, the two instruments share many similarities, and on balance, neither seems preferable to the other. In practice, however, most countries have relied more on taxes than on permits to control pollution. The analysis suggests a number of lessons to be learned from country experiences regarding the design and implementation of both instruments. While many, particularly European countries, currently have long-term programs involving environmental taxes, a willingness to experiment with tradable permits seems to be growing, especially given the Kyoto protocol emission targets.
Mr. John Norregaard and Ms. Valerie Reppelin

from taxes on the use of motor vehicles. It is interesting to note that the taxes on petrol and diesel together with the taxes on the sale or use of motor vehicles generated more than 91 percent of all the environmentally related tax revenue covered by the OECD study. In other words, in relative terms, the revenue raised from pure emission taxes is very modest. However, while this holds for the OECD countries as a group, in individual countries, and in particular in the “ecotax leaders” dealt with below, emission taxes may be of quite some revenue importance. Despite