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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The authorities have reacted to the COVID-19 crisis in an appropriate manner, including through increased spending on health and a rollout of the vaccination program. Nevertheless, the deterioration of socio-economic indicators during the pandemic could create scars that would significantly lower growth if left unaddressed.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses key findings of the Second Review Under the Staff Monitored Program (SMP) and New Program for 2007 for Liberia. Performance under the SMP in the quarter to end-September was mixed. The authorities achieved all but one of the quantitative benchmarks, but they needed more time to achieve key structural benchmarks, including the review of contracts and concessions and finalization of the domestic debt and anticorruption strategies. Most of these outstanding benchmarks have now been met.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Pakistan’s First Review Under the Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria. Pakistan’s program is on track and has started to bear fruit. However, risks remain elevated. Strong ownership and steadfast reform implementation are critical to entrench macroeconomic stability and support robust and balanced growth. The authorities are committed to sustaining the progress on fiscal adjustment to place debt on a downward path. The planned reforms include strengthening tax revenue mobilization, including the elimination of tax exemptions and loopholes, and prudent expenditure policies. Preparations for a comprehensive tax policy reform should start early to ensure timely implementation. The authorities have adopted a comprehensive plan to address the accumulation of arrears in the power sector. Its full implementation is key to improve collection, reduce losses, and enhance governance. Timely and regular adjustment of energy tariffs will bring the sector in line with cost recovery.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
On March 1, 2021, the IMF Executive Board approved a 36-month arrangement under the Extended Fund Facility (EFF) with access of SDR 1.23749 billion (335 percent of quota, equivalent to US$1.778 billion) to support the country’s response to the pandemic and its reform efforts toward strong, inclusive, and sustainable growth. The authorities’ proactive response to the COVID-19 crisis, combined with sustained export performance, have supported a robust recovery. The outlook remains subject to downside risks, amid tighter global financial conditions, higher commodity prices, and the threat of new COVID variants.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Jordan’s Request for an extended arrangement under the Extended Fund Facility (EFF). The economic growth of Jordan remains below potential. Unemployment is high, particularly for youth and women, and the refugee crisis is weighing on the economy and public finances. Real GDP growth is projected to increase to 2.8 percent in 2016, supported by lower oil prices relative to their 2014 peak, an accommodative monetary stance, and some recovery in private investment. In view of Jordan’s balance of payment needs, the policy actions already taken, and the comprehensive package of adjustment measures proposed by the authorities, the IMF staff supports the authorities’ request for an extended arrangement under the EFF.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Tunisia’s macroeconomic situation has recovered from the post-revolution trough, but fiscal and external buffers have been eroded. Prudent management of monetary policy is crucial for short-term macroeconomic stabilization goals and to build external buffers. The challenges arise from social and economic disparities and high youth unemployment. The economic reform agenda appropriately aims at addressing these challenges through short-term stabilization goals while laying the foundations for supporting growth. Executive Directors commend the government’s commitment to maintaining an appropriate fiscal stance while making space for critical spending priorities and repayments of arrears.
International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses key findings of the Second Review Under the Staff Monitored Program (SMP) and New Program for 2007 for Liberia. Performance under the SMP in the quarter to end-September was mixed. The authorities achieved all but one of the quantitative benchmarks, but they needed more time to achieve key structural benchmarks, including the review of contracts and concessions and finalization of the domestic debt and anticorruption strategies. Most of these outstanding benchmarks have now been met.

Mr. Alfred Schipke

Young people, hardest hit by the global economic downturn, are speaking out and demanding change. F&D looks at the need to urgently address the challenges facing youth and create opportunities for them. Harvard professor David Bloom lays out the scope of the problem and emphasizes the importance of listening to young people in "Youth in the Balance." "Making the Grade" looks at how to teach today's young people what they need to get jobs. IMF Deputy Managing Director, Nemat Shafik shares her take on the social and economic consequences of youth unemployment in our "Straight Talk" column. "Scarred Generation" looks at the effects the global economic crisis had on young workers in advanced economies, and we hear directly from young people across the globe in "Voices of Youth." Renminbi's rise, financial system regulation, and boosting GDP by empowering women. Also in the magazine, we examine the rise of the Chinese currency, look at the role of the credit rating agencies, discuss how to boost the empowerment of women, and present our primer on macroprudential regulation, seen as increasingly important to financial stability. People in economics - C. Fred Bergsten, American Globalist. Back to basics - The multi-dimensional role of banks in our financial systems.

International Monetary Fund

This paper presents Seychelles’ 2008 Article IV Consultation and Request for a Stand-By Arrangement. Large macroeconomic imbalances and vulnerabilities resulting from longstanding unsustainable macroeconomic policies, combined with recent external shocks, culminated in mid-2008 with the near-exhaustion of foreign reserves and missed payments on public debt obligations. Growth is declining, and inflation has risen sharply. The pegged exchange rate that was incompatible with fundamentals, together with a complex system of exchange restrictions and controls, has resulted in economic dislocation, a parallel exchange market, and pervasive dollarization.