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Dorothy Engmann, Mr. Ousmane Dore, and Benoít Anne
This paper evaluates the impact of the sociopolitical crisis in Côte d'Ivoire on the economies of its neighbors. Using a nonsubjective weighted index of regional instability in cross-country time-series regressions, it shows that the increase in regional instability caused by domestic instability in Côte d'Ivoire had a negative effect on the growth performance of its most direct neighbors, but no significant effect on the subregion as a whole including the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). The paper also examines the channels through which such spillover effects took place.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

debt relief from all creditors once it has fulfilled a number of steps designed to strengthen and broaden economic growth and reduce poverty. The Senegalese authorities will outline these measures in a poverty reduction strategy paper, drafted in consultation with a broad cross section of local civil society and the support of international partners. Country authorities estimate this will be completed by the end of 2001. Background Senegal was first considered for debt relief under the original HIPC Initiative framework in early 1998, but it was determined at

Frank Eich

), country authoritiesestimates (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Thailand, Ukraine), or the ILO’s World Social Security Report 2010/11 (Malaysia). For some countries, these data might include social security spending other than pensions (Brazil). Because these data provide few data points, the years before 2010 are imputed based on demographics. For cases in which data for 1990 and beyond are not available for these countries, they are imputed based on data from the ILO’s “The Cost of Social Security.” For

Dorothy Engmann, Mr. Ousmane Dore, and Benoít Anne

.83 -17.24 16.67 14.29 9.38 Ghana 1.42 28.67 4.89 12.44 -2.76 3.32 Senegal 14.12 0.00 -2.06 8.42 11.65 -1.74 Togo 24.14 -11.1! 3.13 12.12 -2.70 11.11 Sources: IMF, World Economic Outlook; and country authoritiesestimates. B. Impact Through Capital Flows and Current Transfers The spillover effect of the Ivoirien crisis on neighboring countries could also take place through capital flows and current transfers. 18 Private current transfers, mostly repatriated earnings or private worker

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

this approach (e.g., limited room to expand forest cover), rather than strengthening their own mitigation efforts. The adoption of shadow carbon prices by the government in conducting BCAs of public projects will also tilt the balance toward low emission and carbon-negative projects. Progressively expanding the use of this approach, as the government intends, is critical and should be done as quickly as feasible. More Than Doubling the Real Carbon Price Would Still Not Be Sufficient to Reach the 2030 Target Source: Country authorities, estimates from the IMF

International Monetary Fund

interpolation between the two observed points. For other emerging economies, the most recent spending as a share of GDP comes from IMF documents (Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia), country authoritiesestimates (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Russia, Thailand, and Ukraine), or the ILO’s World Social Security Report 2010/11 (Malaysia). For some countries, these data might include social security spending other than pensions (Brazil). Since these data provide few data points, the years up to 2010 are imputed based on

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund
Regulating energy prices has been a common practice around the world. The objective is, generally, to facilitate access to energy products, which are central to people’s well-being and countries’ economic development. However, energy price regulation also leads to wasteful and excessive consumption, discourages investment in the energy sector, and locks in inefficient technologies. Low energy prices also result in subsidies that erode fiscal space, while benefits for the poor are limited. All these effects have been evident in Arab countries, where domestic energy prices are among the lowest in the world. The current environment of low oil prices offers a unique opportunity for change. Lessons from international experience suggest how well thought-out and sequenced reforms can be successful.
International Monetary Fund

.0 -2.7 UAE 2.0 0.7 -1.3 Tunisia 4.6 2.8 -1.8 Sources: Country authorities, IEA, and IMF staff estimates. 1 Excludes Libya, Syria, and Yemen. 2 Energy subsidy levels may differ from country authoritiesestimates due to the use of a different reference price. 3 Energy subsidies include regular gasoline, diesel, kerosene, natural gas, and electricity. Among oil exporters, the UAE stands out for its low level of subsidies. In all the others, subsidies remain large despite recent declines. The recent