Economic circumstances may determine the demand for populism, but, as we know from economics, the other side of the market for political thought—the supply—is also important. The question still remains why the so-called “losers” in some countriesvote for the populists and not for the parties they voted for in the past. The puzzle is confounded by why the less populist traditional parties still satisfy the wishes of voters in many other countries. IMF research finds that economic distress matters only when the level of trust in political institutions is weak. In other
International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office
Since 2008, a series of reforms have strengthened IMF governance in a number of ways. The 2008 and 2010 quota and voice reforms achieved a sizable reduction in misalignments of member countryvoting power with the evolving global economy while protecting representation of low-income members. Other reforms, mainly in the area of Board practices and procedures, have improved efficiency and raised the Board’s capacity to deliver on its executive, strategic, and oversight roles. The recent introduction of Board self-evaluation, a more open archives policy
This paper discusses principles and functions of the IMF. The IMF is a specialized agency of the United Nations system set up by treaty in 1945 to help promote the health of the world economy. Through its work, the IMF helps to keep the world economy running as smoothly as possible. Its work is aimed partly at the prevention of economic and financial crises, but it is also there to help countries out if such a crisis does occur. Member countries provide money (known as quota subscriptions) to the IMF. The IMF can lend from this pool to members in financial difficulty. Quotas, which are based mainly on countries' economic size, determine countries' voting power in the IMF and the limits to what they can borrow. The IMF and World Bank are jointly engaged in an initiative designed to help heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) cut their debt burdens. Under the HIPC Initiative, debt-reduction is provided to support, policies that promote economic growth and poverty reduction. Policies to reduce poverty need to be supported not only by debt relief, but also by increased aid flows from the “richer countries and” by improved access for developing countries to industrial countries' export markets.