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Mr. Alexei P Kireyev and Andrei Leonidov

inclusiveness. 4. This paper contributes to the literature along several dimensions . First, the paper presents a simple accounting framework of inclusive growth in its narrow definition, where growth is defined as inclusive if it helps reduce inequality in consumption. Second, the paper illustrates parameter shifts needed to turn non-inclusive growth into inclusive growth. Third, the paper proposes per-percentile policies needed to rebalance consumption growth at a very granular level of consumption expenditure distribution. Finally, to illustrate the framework, the paper

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Aging Speed 11. Labor Compensation, 2019 12. Consumption Expenditure, 2018 13. Housing and Transport Expenditure, 2018 ANNEXES I. Identifying Structural Drivers of Consumption II. Consumption Expenditure Distribution, Based on Household Expenditure Surveys References LABOR MARKET POLICY RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 CRISIS A. Impact of COVID-19 on the Labor Market B. Short Term Labor Market Measures to Address the COVID-19 Crisis C. Recovery Measures D. Concluding Remarks FIGURES 1. Rate of Unemployment 2. Quarterly Employment Change 3

Mr. Alexei P Kireyev and Andrei Leonidov
Inclusive growth, narrowly defined in this paper as growth that helps reduce inequality, is achieved if consumption of the poor increases faster than consumption of the rich. The paper presents a simple accounting framework for a per-percentile consumption diagnostics that could inform redistribution policies. The proposed framework is illustrated in application to Iraq and Tunisia.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

consumption in Singapore . Comparing where and by how much an average household spends its income can offer useful insights into the drivers of consumption patterns, insights that could be difficult to identify with only macroeconomic data. In order to identify the sources of differences, we compare the consumption expenditure distribution of Singaporean households to those of countries among the highest consumption-to-GNDI ratios among AEs, namely the U.S. and the U.K (Annex 2). 12. Singapore’s low housing and transport costs may further explain the gap unexplained by

Mr. Gabriel Quiros-Romero and Mr. Marshall B Reinsdorf

Distribution of the national or disposable income benefitting each household (e.g. by quintile and household characteristics) Net income adjusted for depletion of natural resources Households Balance of primary incomes Disposable income Distributions of households’ primary income and disposable income Households, with social transfers in-kind (STiK) Adjusted disposable income Distribution of households’ adjusted disposable income Real final consumption Households Final consumption expenditure Distribution of households’ final

Mr. Gabriel Quiros-Romero and Mr. Marshall B Reinsdorf
Calls for a more people-focused approach to statistics on economic performance, and concerns about inequality, environmental impacts, and effects of digitalization have put welfare at the top of the measurement agenda. This paper argues that economic welfare is a narrower concept than well-being. The new focus implies a need to prioritize filling data gaps involving the economic welfare indicators of the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA) and improving their quality, including the quality of the consumption price indexes. Development of distributional indicators of income, consumption, and wealth should also be a priority. Definitions and assumptions can have big effects on these indicators and should be documented. Concerns have also arisen over potentially overlooked welfare growth from the emergence of the digital economy. However, the concern that free online platforms are missing from nominal GDP is incorrect. Also, many of the welfare effects of digitalization require complementary indicators, either because they are conceptually outside the boundary of GDP or impossible to quantify without making uncertain assumptions.
International Monetary Fund

poverty line used to calculate the poverty levels reported for 2001 in SPPRED, on the other hand, only uses minimum consumption norms for the food basket, which is taken to represent 70% of the overall consumption basket.) The prices used to calculate the cost of the minimum consumption basket vary according to the type of product: The value of the minimum food basket is priced using the prices actually paid by the poor population (the lowest decile in the consumption expenditure distribution range), and the prices are taken from the HBS (the same source as was used

International Monetary Fund

inequality, as measured by consumption expenditure distribution, showed very little change during the eighties ( Annex Table 4 ). The picture changed during the nineties as the Gini coefficient rose considerably, with urban inequality rising much more than rural inequality. Thus, during the period between 1991/92 and 2000, the level of consumption expenditure inequality increased from 30.7 to 36.8 per cent in urban areas, and from 24.3 to 27.1 per cent in rural areas ( Table 2 ). The rising trends in inequality is possibly one important reason as to why the poverty

International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews Bangladesh’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP). The paper addresses the question as to “what are the broad lessons from the past development experience.” It captures the salient features of social progress notwithstanding the challenging odds facing the country. The paper reviews the trends of poverty to set the benchmark for the subsequent discussion on poverty targets as well as antipoverty policy and institutional actions necessary to achieve the targets. The paper also sets the major targets and goal posts sketching a transition path for Bangladesh.