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Mr. Serhan Cevik and João Tovar Jalles
Climate change is the defining challenge of our time with complex and evolving dynamics. The effects of climate change on economic output and financial stability have received considerable attention, but there has been much less focus on the relationship between climate change and income inequality. In this paper, we provide new evidence on the association between climate change and income inequality, using a large panel of 158 countries during the period 1955–2019. We find that an increase in climate change vulnerability is positively associated with rising income inequality. More interestingly, splitting the sample into country groups reveals a considerable contrast in the impact of climate change on income inequality. While climate change vulnerability has no statistically significant effect on income distribution in advanced economies, the coefficient on climate change vulnerability is seven times greater and statistically highly significant in the case of developing countries due largely to weaker capacity for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
Mr. Serhan Cevik and João Tovar Jalles

), research on how climate change can affect sovereign default risk is absent. In Cevik and Jalles (2020) , we show that climate change vulnerability and resilience have significant effects on government bond yields and spreads, after controlling for conventional macroeconomic factors, especially in developing countries. In this paper, we uncover another layer of empirical information by estimating the impact of climate change on the probability of sovereign default in a group of 116 countries over the period 1995– 2017, taking advantage of a comprehensive dataset on

Mr. Serhan Cevik and João Tovar Jalles
Climate change poses an existential threat to the global economy. While there is a growing body of literature on the economic consequences of climate change, research on the link between climate change and sovereign default risk is nonexistent. We aim to fill this gap in the literature by estimating the impact of climate change vulnerability and resilience on the probability of sovereign debt default. Using a sample of 116 countries over the period 1995–2017, we find that climate change vulnerability and resilience have significant effects on the probability of sovereign debt default, especially among low-income countries. That is, countries with greater vulnerability to climate change face a higher likelihood of debt default compared to more climate resilient countries. These findings remain robust to a battery of sensitivity checks, including alternative measures of sovereign debt default, model specifications, and estimation methodologies.