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International Monetary Fund

than 20 percent in the ratio; “moderate” = reduction (increase) of 0-20 percent; For real wages and for employment: “sizeable” = reduction (increase) of more than 10 percent in the index; “moderate” = reduction (increase) of 0-10 percent. In a sample of 29 SSA countries, 18 recorded a reduction in wage bills as a percent of expenditures (e.g. Guinea-Bissau and Ghana) (see table 3 ). However, as Lienert and Modi (1997) note, the wage bill adjustment in the SSA countries was not as significant as that which middle income countries have undertaken in the

International Monetary Fund
This paper argues that the development of human capital in the public sector should be an important ingredient in any proposed set of “second-generation” reforms for Africa. In the post-colonial era the quality of governance has seriously declined, and the stock of human capital in the public sector has been eroded by a flight of human capital from many countries in response to compression of wages. The paper develops a simple theoretical framework to discuss these issues and the continent’s experience with foreign technical assistance in supplementing the low level of domestic human capital.
Ms. Izabela Karpowicz and Mauricio Soto
Brazil’s public-sector wage bill is comparatively high. It grows inertially and competes with other spending. Rightsizing the wage bill could stimulate administrative efficiency and bring more equity into a system where public employees earn more than private in comparable professions. Most importantly, however, a reform is necessary to comply with the Federal government expenditure ceiling and the subnational fiscal responsibility rules. A reform should thus encompass all government levels, and all careers, and should aim to achieve a real decrease in salaries and lower employment. In the medium term, a review of the compensation structure should rationalize the multitude if wage grids, merge allowances into the base wage, and align public sector compensation to private wages in low-skilled professions.
International Monetary Fund

Financial Corporation (IFC) as a government advisor, and the workforce was reduced in order to control its wage bill. Adjusting the prices of petroleum product within the first 8 months of 2005 helped to limit the losses of the state-owned refinery (SONARA). While my authorities remain committed to implementing fully their restructuring and privatization agenda, delays that occurred were due notably to technical difficulties including delays in the hiring and/or work of international consultants. The authorities have prepared an update of the PRSP’s macroeconomic