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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This paper discusses Malian mining taxation. Mali’s industrial mining sector is predominantly gold mining, with six industrial mines currently active. Most of the mines are old, but some have substantial reserves; extensions are planned for the Syama, Morila, Kalama, Tabakoto-Segela, and Loulo-Gounkoto mines. The Fiscal Analysis for Resource Industries model was completed for five new projects with recent feasibility studies. The government revenue contributed by the five new projects is on the order of US$1.7 billion (constant dollars) over the next 10 years. The application of the 1999 or 2012 Mining Code increases the government’s share of income in comparison with the 1991 code.
Mr. George Kopits
Most European economies in transition are engaged in public sector reform aimed mainly at replacing the previous fiscal system subordinated to the central plan with a system where fiscal instruments can make a distinct contribution to stabilization, equity, and efficiency. This paper examines past progress and future tasks in major reform areas: taxation, subsidies, social security, public investment, public enterprises, government debt, and intergovernmental relations. An overview of the fiscal reform process suggests that the contraction and restructuring of government operations are not likely to materialize soon and that there is a serious risk of widening fiscal imbalances during the transition.
Mr. George Kopits

Most European economies in transition are engaged in public sector reform aimed mainly at replacing the previous fiscal system subordinated to the central plan with a system where fiscal instruments can make a distinct contribution to stabilization, equity, and efficiency. This paper examines past progress and future tasks in major reform areas: taxation, subsidies, social security, public investment, public enterprises, government debt, and intergovernmental relations. An overview of the fiscal reform process suggests that the contraction and restructuring of government operations are not likely to materialize soon and that there is a serious risk of widening fiscal imbalances during the transition.

Vitor Gaspar and Mr. David Amaglobeli

addressed five core areas: taxation, public credit, financial markets and organizations, financial stability and crisis management, and trade policy. Hamilton was inspired by a new kind of state that had emerged from Britain’s Glorious Revolution of 1688–89: one capable of mobilizing resources for war and international competition and actively engaged in economic and financial development. This program of state building dominated political debate in the United States for the next decade. Famously, Madison and Hamilton initially were close political allies. They

Mr. Oscar E Melhado Orellana

area taxation; export taxation yields lower expected profits. Profit taxation reduces the variance of returns, but to evaluate profits risk aversion rules are not taken into account. Therefore, profit and area taxes are equivalent. Proof: Evaluating the profit expressions for P max = μ+h and P min = μ-h For export taxation: ∫ ( 1 − R * / μ Q e ) P Q e − w L e – m T   d P 2 h ( μ Q e − w L e – m T ) − 2 h   R * For profit taxation: ∫ ( 1 − R * / ( μ Q − w L − m T ) ) ( P Q − w L – m T ) d P 2 h ( μ Q – w L – m T ) − 2 h   R * For area taxation: ∫ P

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

mining codes. The impact of the 2012 Mining Code relative to the 1999 code on the AETR is not uniform; which of the two has the greatest impact depends on the structure of the project costs. It increases the AETR for those with the highest unit costs of production and reduces it for those with the lowest unit costs. The regressive nature of the tax system is the result of developments in the area taxation: the 2012 Mining Code reduced the corporate income tax rate by 10 points but reinstated the ad valorem tax of 3 percent of turnover. The internal rate of return (IRR

Mr. Oscar E Melhado Orellana
This paper reviews forestry reform in the Congo basin, focusing on Gabon. It argues that the key challenge for the Congo basin countries is to manage their forests in a sustainable manner. It presents the current situation of forestry taxation and forestry reform in Gabon. The paper analyzes optimal taxation in the forestry sector using a static model. The model works from the proposition that tax policy should be used exclusively for revenue purposes and resource preservation should be achieved mainly through legislation and enforcement. It argues that when prices are uncertain the best practice is to tax only profits.
Mario Mansour, Ms. Pritha Mitra, Mr. Carlo A Sdralevich, and Mr. Andrew Jewell

resources should be taxed when it accrues to foreigners as opposed to nationals. Figure 1. MENA: Income and Equity Indicators Sources: World Bank; ILO; IMF; UNDP; and IMF staff calculations. 1/Defined as the share of the population deprived of access to three key welfare dimensions: education, healthcare, and standards of living. The measure is based on 10 indicators (such as access to cooking fuel, toilets, water, electricity, and assets) covering these three areas. Taxation plays an important role in creating fairness . In MENA countries, policy has

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

—Taxation, Public Expenditure Management (PEM), Financial Sector Reform, and Other Fund Core activities, including issues related to trade, exchange rate, and monetary policy—correspond closely to the definition of the Fund’s core areas provided by the 2002 CG, and are referred to as “Core” in the remainder of this report. 3 13. During the evaluation period (1995–2004) about two-thirds of all structural conditions were concentrated in a few core areas of Fund responsibility, with some 20 percent in each of the following areas: Taxation, PEM, and Financial Sector Reform, and 6

International Monetary Fund

. In the case of the one major project in what is now the joint development area (90 percent of petroleum attributable to Timor-Leste, 10 percent to Australia), the frozen Indonesian law is supplemented by a specific Timor-Leste tax law for the project, and by a tax stability agreement. In common with all projects in the joint area, taxation is also subject to the double taxation code under the Timor Sea Treaty. The tax stability agreement “freezes” the whole package as at January 1, 2002, but is a two-way street, as discussed below. The offsetting change