Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for :

  • "air pollution damage" x
Clear All
Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

, which is a contentious exercise, but is done for illustrative purposes using evidence on how people in different countries value the trade-off between money and risk from numerous studies analyzed in OECD (2012) . Finally, damage is expressed per unit of energy content or fuel use using country-level data on emission rates. The same approach is used to measure air pollution damage from natural gas plants. Damage from vehicle and other ground-level sources (which tend to remain locally concentrated) is extrapolated from a city-level database on pollution intake rates

Ian W.H. Parry, Victor Mylonas, and Nate Vernon
Spreadsheet models are used to assess the environmental, fiscal, economic, and incidence effects of a wide range of options for reducing fossil fuel use in India. Among the most effective options is ramping up the existing coal tax. Annually increasing the tax by INR 150 ($2.25) per ton of coal from 2017 to 2030 avoids over 270,000 air pollution deaths, raises revenue of 1 percent of GDP in 2030, reduces CO2 emissions 12 percent, and generates net economic benefits of approximately 1 percent of GDP. The policy is mildly progressive and (at least initially) imposes a relatively modest cost burden on industries.
Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

in practice. 1 For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on climate impacts, and the Global Burden of Disease project, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition on air pollution damage.

Mr. Waikei R Lam and Mr. Philippe Wingender
Revenue reforms can contribute to more inclusive, green, and sustainable growth in China. Relative to OECD economies, fiscal policy in China is less redistributive. Options for promoting more inclusive growth include improving the progressivity of labor taxes (individual income tax and social security contributions), introducing a recurrent property tax, and finishing the transition to a comprehensive value-added tax. Higher environmental taxes, meanwhile, would promote more environment-friendly economy. These reforms could also significantly boost revenue, potentially by as much as 6½ percent of GDP. Such increases in revenue could help reduce the deficit, finance priority social and infrastructure spending, and offset cuts in other taxes. We illustrate how these revenue reforms could be part of a comprehensive fiscal package that achieves the needed consolidation in the (augmented) deficit and foster higher quality growth.
Mr. Simon Black, Koralai Kirabaeva, Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Mehdi Raissi, and Karlygash Zhunussova
This paper discusses a comprehensive strategy for implementing Mexico’s climate mitigation commitments. Progressively increasing carbon prices from current levels of US$3 per ton to US$75 per ton by 2030 would achieve Mexico’s mitigation pledges, while raising annual revenues of 1.8 percent of GDP and cumulatively averting 11,600 deaths from local air pollution. The carbon price would raise fossil fuel and electricity prices, imposing burdens of 2.7 percent of consumption on the average Mexican household. However, recycling carbon pricing revenues would offset most of this burden, and targeted transfers could make the reform pro-poor and pro-equity. Additionally, the economic efficiency costs of carbon pricing (0.3 percent of GDP in 2030) are more than offset by local air pollution and other domestic environmental benefits (before even counting climate benefits). Mexico would need a more ambitious 2030 target if it were to follow many other countries in adopting a midcentury ‘net-zero’ emissions target. To enhance the effectiveness of the mitigation strategy, carbon pricing can be reinforced with sectoral instruments, such as feebates in the transport, power, industry, building, forestry, extractive, and agricultural sectors. Complementary policies are also needed to support public investment in the clean energy transition.
Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

than wealthier nations. This principle implies either their receiving compensation or their imposing lower emissions prices than others, or perhaps no price at all. Application of this principle need not hinder international mitigation efforts however, at least for the vast majority of low-income countries whose emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global total ( Gillingham and Keen, 2012 ). Local Air Pollution Damage Although local air pollution causes a variety of other harmful environmental effects, the central issue is premature human mortality

International Monetary Fund
The Seventh National Development Plan of the Maldives envisages sustainable development with economic growth, social equity, environment protection, and good governance. The report assesses the policies and strategies needed to achieve the goals as well as the agencies responsible to implement the policies. It also summarizes the principles, vision, and goals of the National Development Plan (NDP) and assesses the economic, spatial, social development, and governing factors of the plan. It discusses the priorities, responsibilities, and accountabilities for development, and assessed that monitoring and evaluation is necessary for higher performance and greater accountability.
Mr. Simon Black, Koralai Kirabaeva, Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Mehdi Raissi, and Karlygash Zhunussova

least US$6.4 and US$3.4 per GJ for coal and gas, respectively. Local air pollution damage is relatively high for coal consumption in the power sector ($0.9 per GJ) and diesel ($0.3/liter). 21 Vehicles using gasoline and diesel also contribute to road accidents and road damages, and these externalities are a significant component of second-best efficient fuel taxes. See Figure 10 . Figure 10. Energy Externalities by Fuel in 2020 Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Potential VAT assumes general rate. Climate damages are valued at a target

Ian W.H. Parry, Victor Mylonas, and Nate Vernon

85 percent of total air pollution damage estimates in U.S. EPA (2011) , EC (1999) , World Bank and State Environmental Protection Agency of China (2007) , and Watkiss and others (2005) . 21 For example, that European countries should lower their road fuel taxes to U.S. levels ( Parry and Small 2005 , Parry and others 2014a , Chapter 5). In computing efficient road fuel taxes, mileage-related externalities are multiplied by the fraction of the fuel reduction that comes from reduced mileage (usually assumed to be about half) as opposed to the fraction

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

appropriate credit for the emissions mitigation. Figure 6.3 shows the breakdown of air pollution damage from coal plants with no controls by type of emissions. For most countries, SO 2 is the most damaging pollutant (its share in total pollution damage varies across countries from 27 percent to 71 percent), followed by primary fine particulate emissions (PM 2.5 ), though in some countries (Australia, Brazil, India, Japan, and Korea) primary particulates from uncontrolled plants would cause the most damage (their share in total pollution damage varies from 16 percent