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Ms. Dora Benedek, Mr. Edward R Gemayel, Mr. Abdelhak S Senhadji, and Alexander F. Tieman
The COVID-19 pandemic hit countries’ development agendas hard. The ensuing recession has pushed millions into extreme poverty and has shrunk government resources available for spending on achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This Staff Discussion Note assesses the current state of play on funding SDGs in five key development areas: education, health, roads, electricity, and water and sanitation, using a newly developed dynamic macroeconomic framework.
Victor Duarte Lledo and Mr. Roberto Perrelli

by 2030, active policies would need to be complemented with about 13¾ percentage points of GDP in additional resources annually until then. JEL Classification Numbers: Q01, H11, H20, H87, O23, I15, I25, F35 Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Development, Fiscal Policy, Structural Reform Author’s E-Mail Address: VLledo@imf.org and RPerrelli@imf.org Contents Abstract I. Introduction II. A Dynamic Financing Framework for Sustainable Development Goals III. Rwanda’s SDG Financing: Pre-Pandemic Situation A. Pre-Pandemic Development

Ms. Dora Benedek, Mr. Edward R Gemayel, Abdelhak S Senhadji, and Alexander F. Tieman

necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management. JEL Classification Numbers: Q01, H11, H20, H87, O23, I15, I25, F35. Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Development, Fiscal Policy, Structural Reform. Authors’ E-mail Address: DBenedek@imf.org , EGemayel@imf.org , ASenhadji@imf.org , ATieman@imf.org Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. INTRODUCTION II. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES III. THE SETBACK FROM THE PANDEMIC IV. IMPROVING THE ODDS A. Public policies and structural reforms B

Victor Duarte Lledo and Mr. Roberto Perrelli
This paper uses a novel macroeconomic framework to identify policy and financing options to help Rwanda achieve its sustainable development goals (SDGs). Under current policies, Rwanda would meet its SDGs right after 2050. Active policies that combine fiscal reforms and higher private sector participation could fulfill more than one third of Rwanda’s post-pandemic SDG financing gap, enabling the country to meet its SDG targets by 2040. For Rwanda to meet its SDGs by 2030, active policies would need to be complemented with about 13¾ percentage points of GDP in additional resources annually until then.