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Ms. Claudia H Dziobek, Mr. Alberto F Jimenez de Lucio, and Mr. James A Chan
This note addresses the following main issues: • Statistical definitions of government (Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001) • Institutional structure of government and public sector • What is a precise definition of government and why it is relevant • Potential pitfalls of lacking a precise definition of government • Definitions of government in IMF-supported programs • Applications for fiscal rules and other fiscal policy design
Ms. Claudia H Dziobek, Mr. Alberto F Jimenez de Lucio, and Mr. James A Chan

, a transfer from an extrabudgetary unit could be correctly classified as revenue (a grant) by the budgetary central government from a statistical standpoint, whereas the program may wish to exclude such transfers when calculating a balance (deficit or surplus). III. What is a Precise Statistical Definition of Government? A. Statistical Definitions of Government Statistical manuals include standard definitions of government that can be applied to all countries. A first step in setting up a definition is an analysis of government entities, broadly

Ms. Claudia H Dziobek, Mr. Alberto F Jimenez de Lucio, and Mr. James A Chan

Front Matter Page Statistics Department Front Matter Page This note addresses the following main issues: Statistical definitions of government ( Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 ) Institutional structure of government and public sector What is a precise definition of government and why it is relevant Potential pitfalls of lacking a precise definition of government Definitions of government in IMF-supported programs Applications for fiscal rules and other fiscal policy design

Ms. Yuanyan S Zhang and Mr. Steven A Barnett

Board http://0-dsbb-imf-org.library.svsu.edu/Pages/GDDS/CtyCtgList.aspx?ctycode=CHN has a description of the authorities’ plans. 4 See Fedelino (2004) for a discussion of China’s fiscal reform. 5 See http://0-www-imf-org.library.svsu.edu/external/pubs/ft/gfs/manual/gfs.htm for comprehensive information on Government Financial Statistics. The Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 ( GFSM2001 ), http://0-www-imf-org.library.svsu.edu/external/pubs/ft/gfs/manual/index.htm provides a statistical definition of government. The latest Government Finance Statistics Yearbook discussed specifically China

Ms. Yuanyan S Zhang and Mr. Steven A Barnett
China weathered the global financial crisis better than most, thanks to a large and timely stimulus. This stimulus, however, was mainly in the form of off-budget infrastructure spending and thus not visible in the headline fiscal data. We construct a time series for the augmented fiscal deficit and debt—augmented to include off-budget activity—that better illustrates the counter-cyclical role of fiscal policy. The results also show that the augmented fiscal deficit and debt are both considerably higher than the headline government data suggest. Nonetheless, at around 45 percent of GDP, the augmented debt is still at a manageable level.