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Mr. Mahmood Hasan Khan and Mr. Mohsin S. Khan
Agriculture remains the dominant sector in the economies of most Sub-Saharan African countries. However, the experience of agricultural growth in the region stands in sharp contrast to the robust performance of agriculture in many Asian countries, particularly China. In a number of African countries, labor productivity has fallen and land productivity has not risen significantly. In China, on the other hand, land and labor productivities have increased steadily over the past two decades. An examination of factors underlying the contrasting experiences of China and countries in Sub-Saharan Africa reveals important differences in the institutional and policy environments affecting the use of new and profitable technologies to raise land and labor productivities.
Mr. Mahmood Hasan Khan and Mr. Mohsin S. Khan

food self-sufficiency, which has been called “food fundamentalism”, particularly in grain production irrespective of the differences in regional comparative advantages. Also, it kept the producer prices of agricultural goods at levels that were far below the border prices to provide cheap food to industrial workers and urban consumers. Prices were administratively determined. Producers’ sales quotas were fixed. State purchase prices and state selling prices bore little relationship to each other. Prices were irrelevant to distribution, since commodities were

Yiping Huang

, at the beginning of the reform program, intended to encourage agricultural production only by raising state purchase prices, increasing state investment in agriculture, and improving management of the commune system. Initiatives that disrupted collective production were strictly prohibited. Farmers in poor regions, however, secretly experimented with household-based production responsibility systems. Good harvests by teams that adopted the experiment attracted others to experiment the next year. In 1979, only 1 percent of all production teams adopted the household

International Monetary Fund

expected in the fourth quarter of 1994, as most grain procurement transactions are made in the latter part of the year ( Table 32 ). During the first nine months of 1994, the grain subsidy accounted for more than 90 percent of budgetary subsidies (manat 585 million). Prior to April 1994, subsidies were incurred only on the differential between the retail and wholesale prices of the finished product (various baked goods, flour), while the wholesale prices were set roughly in line with the state purchasing prices. In April, however, the state purchasing price of imported

International Monetary Fund
This Background Paper and Statistical Appendix for Turkmenistan examines the developments since November 1993, when the manat was introduced as the national currency. Developments in the real sector and systemic reforms are discussed. Fiscal policies, monetary and credit policies, external developments, and the exchange and trade system are described. The paper highlights that over the medium term, the path toward sustainable growth clearly includes the development of alternative routes for the shipment of gas outside the territory of the Former Soviet Union.