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Anna Belianska, Nadja Bohme, Kailhao Cai, Yoro Diallo, Saanya Jain, Mr. Giovanni Melina, Ms. Pritha Mitra, Mr. Marcos Poplawski Ribeiro, and Solo Zerbo

). Climate funds, their financiers, and international entities (including implementing entities such as international agencies and institutions, MDBs, bilateral agencies) may focus on funding volume targets. In which case, larger climate investments will be prioritized to meet the targets, crowding out SSA projects that tend to be small on a global scale. In practice, for example, when climate funds channel financing through an international implementing entity, the entity’s risk-taking profile can influence the choice of financing recipient. For example, an entity with

Felix F. Simione and Yiruo Li

Outlook for Sub-Saharan Africa (REO SSA) project, the Inclusive Growth Network seminar participants, and the Research Advisory Group in the IMF African Department for their helpful comments. This Working Paper delves more deeply into part of the empirical analysis underpinning the published REO SSA 2020 chapter on digitalization in SSA. Yiruo Li conducted this work while still working in the African Department of the IMF.

Anna Belianska, Nadja Bohme, Kailhao Cai, Yoro Diallo, Saanya Jain, Mr. Giovanni Melina, Ms. Pritha Mitra, Mr. Marcos Poplawski Ribeiro, and Solo Zerbo
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region in the world most vulnerable to climate change despite its cumulatively emitting the least amount of greenhouse gases. Substantial financing is urgently needed across the economy—for governments, businesses, and households—to support climate change adaptation and mitigation, which are critical for advancing resilient and green economic development as well as meeting commitments under the Paris Agreement. Given the immensity of SSA’s other development needs, this financing must be in addition to existing commitments on development finance. There are many potential ways to raise financing to meet adaptation and mitigation needs, spanning from domestic revenue mobilization to various forms of international private financing. Against this backdrop, S SA policymakers and stakeholders are exploring sources of financing for climate action that countries may not have used substantially in the past. This Staff Climate Note presents some basic information on opportunities and challenges associated with these financing instruments.
Hilary Devine, Adrian Peralta-Alva, Hoda Selim, Preya Sharma, Ludger Wocken, and Luc Eyraud
The Covid-19 pandemic has aggravated the tension between large development needs in infrastructure and scarce public resources. To alleviate this tension and promote a strong and job-rich recovery from the crisis, Africa needs to mobilize more financing from and to the private sector.
International Monetary Fund
This paper is an account of Seychelles’ monetary efforts to establish its position in 2012. After the recovery in 2008, the country had solid growth through 2011. The important threat was external risks, which could lower tourist inflows, and piracy. Alternatively, the authorities were vigilant, and organized the state by strengthening state enterprises, introducing new reforms to eradicate obstacles to the private sector, and the increasing bills for monetary purposes. The Executive Board acknowledges that these policies enhanced a positive outlook for the country.
Hilary Devine, Adrian Peralta-Alva, Hoda Selim, Preya Sharma, Ludger Wocken, and Luc Eyraud

going to public-private partnerships, which are not purely private projects. During 2011–20, external debt represented, on average, 40 percent of PPI investment in SSA countries. Equity accounted for 30 percent of the investment (see Chapter 3 ). The rest came mostly from local debt. Available information on the nationality and stakes of individual shareholders, suggests that SSA projects were predominantly sponsored by international investors, with about 70 percent of the projects’ equity owned by international entities over the period. Combining debt and equity

International Monetary Fund

rating system based on projected financials. The first submission is expected by June 2012 and henceforth will be done by end of first quarter of each year. As to onsite supervision, a full cycle of examination has been concluded. Further examinations will be conducted on an ongoing basis, based on institutions’ ratings. 33. Implementation of the Statistical and Supervisory Application (SSA) project will assist in improving supervision . The SSA which is expected to go live by July 2012 will increase efficiency by further automating the process for offsite