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Mr. Jesus R Gonzalez-Garcia, Mr. Ermal Hitaj, Mr. Montfort Mlachila, Arina Viseth, and Mustafa Yenice
Amid rapid population growth, migration in sub-Saharan Africa has been increasing briskly over the last 20 years. Up to the 1990s, the stock of migrants—citizens of one country living in another country—was dominated by intraregional migration, but over the last 15 years, migration outside the region has picked up sharply. In the coming decades, sub-Saharan African migration will be shaped by an ongoing demographic transition involving an enlargement of the working-age population, and migration outside the region, in particular to advanced economies, is set to continue expanding. This note explores the main drivers of sub-Saharan African migration, focusing on migration outside the region, as this has greater global spillovers. It finds that the economic impact of migration for the region occurs mainly through two channels. First, the migration of young and educated workers—brain drain—takes a toll as human capital is already scarce in the region, although some recent studies suggest that migration may have also a positive effect—brain gain. Second, remittances represent an important source of foreign exchange and income in a number of sub-Saharan African countries, contribute to the alleviation of poverty, and help smooth business cycles.
Mr. Jesus R Gonzalez-Garcia, Mr. Ermal Hitaj, Mr. Montfort Mlachila, Arina Viseth, and Mustafa Yenice

economic reasons. In the 1990s, most migrants outside SSA were refugees, but thanks to the significant reduction of armed conflicts, by 2013 the great majority had moved for economic reasons and primarily toward advanced economies. Figure 6. Refugees and Internally Displaced Population, 2000 (Millions) Sources: UN High Commissioner for Refugees database. Migration to the rest of the world is growing more rapidly than within the region. There were about 6.6 million SSA migrants outside the region in 2013, which is 2½ times the number recorded in 1990. Also

Arina Viseth
This paper uses census and household survey data on Cameroon, Ghana, and South Africa to examine immigration’s impact in the context of a segmented labor market in Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that immigration affects (i) employment (ii) employment allocation between informal and formal sectors, and (iii) the type of employment within each sector. The direction of the impact depends on the degree of complementarity between immigrants and native workers’ skills. Immigration is found to be productivity-enhancing in the short to near term in countries where, the degree of complementarity between immigrants and native workers’ skill sets is the highest.
Arina Viseth

-regional, each type likely to bring different sets of skills ( Figure 4 ) and; (iv) SSA workers are among the most entrepreneurial in the world ( Figure 5 ). Figure 3. Informal Economy by Region, Income Level, and Type of Economy Source: IMF Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Economic Outlook (2017). Figure 4. Stock of SSA Migrants (millions of people, 1960–2013) Source : Gonzalez-Garcia, Jesus, et al. 2016 . Sub-Saharan African Migration: Patterns and Spillovers. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund Figure 5. Percentage of 18–64 Population who are